Is There a Quiet Revolution in Women's Travel? Revisiting the Gender Gap in Commuting
Gender is both an archetypal and adaptive dimension of the urban condition and thus remains a key moving target for planning practitioners and scholars alike. This is especially true of womenâ€™s growing, if not revolutionary, involvement in the economy. A familiar exception is the trip linking work and home â€“ the commute â€“ which has been consistently and persistently shorter for women than men. That said, new reports suggest that the gender gap in commuting time and distance may have quietly vanished in some areas. To explore this possibility, I use panel data from the American Housing Survey to better measure and explain commute trends for the entire U.S. from 1985 through 2005. They overwhelmingly indicate that differences stubbornly endure, with menâ€™s and womenâ€™s commuting distances converging only slowly and commuting times diverging. My results also show that commuting times are converging for all races, especially for women; womenâ€™s job access remains poorer than menâ€™s, and womenâ€™s trips to work by transit are dwindling rapidly. Thus sex continues to play an important role explaining travel, housing, and labor market dynamics, with major implications for planning practice.
|Date of creation:||01 Jan 2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 109 McLaughlin Hall, Mail Code 1720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1720|
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/uctc/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2006.
"The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 133-156, Fall.
- Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2006. "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," NBER Working Papers 12139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Goldin, Claudia & Kuziemko, Ilyana & Katz, Lawrence, 2006. "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," Scholarly Articles 2962611, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Jan Rouwendal & Peter Nijkamp, 2004. "Living in Two Worlds: A Review of Home-to-Work Decisions," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 287-303.
- Michael A. Stoll, 2006. "Job sprawl, spatial mismatch, and black employment disadvantage," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(4), pages 827-854.
- Kiel, Katherine A & Zabel, Jeffrey E, 1997. "Evaluating the Usefulness of the American Housing Survey for Creating House Price Indices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 189-202, Jan.-Marc.
- Goldin, Claudia, 1992. "Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195072709.
- Claudia Goldin, 1990. "Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gold90-1, June.
- Genevieve Giuliano & Kenneth A. Small, 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 30(9), pages 1485-1500, November.
- Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2ss7x5b1, University of California Transportation Center.
- David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1994. "The Rational Locator: Why Travel Times Have Remained Stable," Working Papers 199402, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Zax, Jeffrey S., 1991. "Compensation for commutes in labor and housing markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 192-207, September.
- Crane, Randall, 1996. "The Influence of Uncertain Job Location on Urban Form and the Journey to Work," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 342-356, May.
- White, Michelle J, 1986. "Sex Differences in Urban Commuting Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 368-372, May.
- Clark, William A. V. & Huang, Youqin & Withers, Suzanne, 2003. "Does commuting distance matter?: Commuting tolerance and residential change," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 199-221, March.
- Rosenbloom, Sandra & Burns, Elizabeth, 1993. "Gender Differences in Commuter Travel in Tucson: Implications for Travel Demand management Programs," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt036776w2, University of California Transportation Center. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)