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Cars and the City: An Investigation of Transportation and Residential Location Choices in New York City

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  • Salon, Deborah

Abstract

This dissertation is an exploration of the relationship between the transportation-land use system in New York City and the transportation and residential location choices made by New Yorkers. The focus is on understanding these location and travel choices made by urbanites. Specifically, this research uses discrete choice models to identify and quantify the effects of the variables that factor into New Yorkers' decisions about where to live, whether to own a car, and how to get around in their daily lives. These models, along with GIS technology, are used to answer the following questions: 1. How far off are the results of models that do not take all three of these decisions as endogenous? 2. In a densely populated urban environment, what are the policy-sensitive factors that determine whether households own cars and how often walking is the mode of choice? 3. How does the relative importance of these factors change across different neighborhoods within the city? 4. How much of the relationship between land use patterns and travel behavior is due to the indirect effects of neighborhood and car ownership choice, and how large is the direct effect of land use patterns on travel behavior? Results indicate that the choices of residential location and commute mode are closely related; models of only commute mode choice produce biased results. Models that do not take the choice of car ownership as endogenous in New York do not appear to be severely biased. Full models of the three choices indicate that the most important policy- sensitive factors influencing car ownership and mode choice are commute cost, commute time, and population density. A set of spatial scenario analyses illustrate that the importance of these factors does indeed vary across neighborhoods within the city. Finally, a methodology is developed to separate the direct effect of land use patterns on travel behavior from the indirect effects. The example used here identifies the direct and indirect effects of population density on the propensity to walk, finding that approximately half of the total effect is direct.

Suggested Citation

  • Salon, Deborah, 2006. "Cars and the City: An Investigation of Transportation and Residential Location Choices in New York City," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1br223vz, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt1br223vz
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kenneth Train, 1980. "A Structured Logit Model of Auto Ownership and Mode Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 357-370.
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    6. Bhat, Chandra R. & Pulugurta, Vamsi, 1998. "A comparison of two alternative behavioral choice mechanisms for household auto ownership decisions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 61-75, January.
    7. Cervero, Robert & Radisch, Carolyn, 1996. "Travel choices in pedestrian versus automobile oriented neighborhoods," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 127-141, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia & Handy, Susan, 2008. "Examining The Impacts of Residential Self-Selection on Travel Behavior: Methodologies and Empirical Findings," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt08x1k476, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    2. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Cao, Xinyu, 2008. "Examining the impacts of residential self-selection on travel behavior: A focus on methodologies," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 204-228, March.
    3. Pinjari, Abdul Rawoof & Bhat, Chandra R. & Hensher, David A., 2009. "Residential self-selection effects in an activity time-use behavior model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 729-748, August.
    4. Xinyu (Jason) Cao, 2009. "Disentangling the influence of neighborhood type and self-selection on driving behavior: an application of sample selection model," Transportation, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 207-222, March.
    5. Cao, Xinyu (Jason) & Xu, Zhiyi & Fan, Yingling, 2010. "Exploring the connections among residential location, self-selection, and driving: Propensity score matching with multiple treatments," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 797-805, December.

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