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Cars and the City: An Investigation of Transportation and Residential Location Choices in New York City

  • Salon, Deborah
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    This dissertation is an exploration of the relationship between the transportation-land use system in New York City and the transportation and residential location choices made by New Yorkers. The focus is on understanding these location and travel choices made by urbanites. Specifically, this research uses discrete choice models to identify and quantify the effects of the variables that factor into New Yorkers' decisions about where to live, whether to own a car, and how to get around in their daily lives. These models, along with GIS technology, are used to answer the following questions: 1. How far off are the results of models that do not take all three of these decisions as endogenous? 2. In a densely populated urban environment, what are the policy-sensitive factors that determine whether households own cars and how often walking is the mode of choice? 3. How does the relative importance of these factors change across different neighborhoods within the city? 4. How much of the relationship between land use patterns and travel behavior is due to the indirect effects of neighborhood and car ownership choice, and how large is the direct effect of land use patterns on travel behavior? Results indicate that the choices of residential location and commute mode are closely related; models of only commute mode choice produce biased results. Models that do not take the choice of car ownership as endogenous in New York do not appear to be severely biased. Full models of the three choices indicate that the most important policy- sensitive factors influencing car ownership and mode choice are commute cost, commute time, and population density. A set of spatial scenario analyses illustrate that the importance of these factors does indeed vary across neighborhoods within the city. Finally, a methodology is developed to separate the direct effect of land use patterns on travel behavior from the indirect effects. The example used here identifies the direct and indirect effects of population density on the propensity to walk, finding that approximately half of the total effect is direct.

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    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1br223vz.pdf;origin=repeccitec
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    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt1br223vz.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt1br223vz
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    1. Ingram, Gregory K. & Zhi Liu, 1999. "Determinants of motorization and road provision," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2042, The World Bank.
    2. Javier Asensio, 2002. "Transport Mode Choice by Commuters to Barcelona's CBD," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(10), pages 1881-1895, September.
    3. Redmond, Lothlorien S. & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2001. "The Positive Utility of the Commute: Modeling Ideal Commute Time and Relative Desired Commute Amount," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4mc291p2, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Ingram, Gregory K. & Zhi Liu, 1997. "Motorization and the provision of roads in countries and cities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1842, The World Bank.
    5. Onozaka, Yuko, 2002. "Evaluating Alternative Methods Of Dealing With Missing Observations - An Economic Application," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19875, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    6. Train, Kenneth, 1980. "A Structured Logit Model of Auto Ownership and Mode Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 357-70, January.
    7. Cervero, Robert & Radisch, Carolyn, 1996. "Travel choices in pedestrian versus automobile oriented neighborhoods," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 127-141, July.
    8. Bagley, Michael N & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2001. "The impact of residential neighborhood type on travel behavior: A structural equations modeling approach," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt12q634n2, University of California Transportation Center.
    9. Bhat, Chandra R. & Pulugurta, Vamsi, 1998. "A comparison of two alternative behavioral choice mechanisms for household auto ownership decisions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 61-75, January.
    10. Quigley, John M., 1985. "Consumer choice of dwelling, neighborhood and public services," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 41-63, February.
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