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Liberalizing Capital Flows in India: Financial Repression, Macroeconomic Policy and Gradual Reforms


  • Kletzer, Kenneth


Capital account liberalization in financially repressed economies often leads to a period of rapid capital inflows followed by financial crisis. This paper considers the vulnerability of the Indian economy to financial crises with international financial integration and the policy agenda for further liberalization of capital flows. The legacy of financial repression on fiscal and financial policies poses the primary challenge to stable integration of the domestic financial markets of India with international capital markets. Brief overviews of the theory and experience of liberalization elsewhere and of the recent liberalization by India frame the discussion of the risks of liberalization and sequencing of policy reforms.

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  • Kletzer, Kenneth, 2004. "Liberalizing Capital Flows in India: Financial Repression, Macroeconomic Policy and Gradual Reforms," Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series qt3kj2w649, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:scciec:qt3kj2w649

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Panicos O. Demetriades & Kul B. Luintel, 1997. "The Direct Costs Of Financial Repression: Evidence From India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 311-320, May.
    2. Demetriades, Panicos O & Luintel, Kul B, 1996. "Financial Development, Economic Growth and Banker Sector Controls: Evidence from India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 359-374, March.
    3. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003. "Debt Intolerance," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 1-74.
    4. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
    5. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    6. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar S Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries; Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Robert Dekle & Kenneth Kletzer, 2002. "Domestic Bank Regulation and Financial Crises: Theory and Empirical Evidence from East Asia," NBER Chapters,in: Preventing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, pages 507-558 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Dekle, Robert & Kletzer, Kenneth, 2003. "The Japanese banking crisis and economic growth: Theoretical and empirical implications of deposit guarantees and weak financial regulation," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 305-335, September.
    9. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    10. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 92-96, May.
    11. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Olivier Jeanne, 2006. "The Elusive Gains from International Financial Integration," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 73(3), pages 715-741.
    12. Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos, 1985. "Good-bye financial repression, hello financial crash," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 1-24.
    13. Renu Kohli & Kenneth Kletzer, 2001. "Financial Repression and Exchange Rate Management in Developing Countries; Theory and Empirical Evidence for India," IMF Working Papers 01/103, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Giovannini, Alberto & de Melo, Martha, 1993. "Government Revenue from Financial Repression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 953-963, September.
    15. International Monetary Fund, 2004. "Interest Rate Volatility and Risk in Indian Banking," IMF Working Papers 04/17, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Partha Sen, 2007. "Capital inflows, financial repression, and macroeconomic policy in India since the reforms," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 292-310, Summer.
    2. Abhijit Sen Gupta, 2008. "Does capital account openness lower inflation?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 471-487.
    3. Abhijit Sen Gupta, 2008. "Cost of Holding Excess Reserves - The Indian Experience," Finance Working Papers 22165, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    4. Jinjarak, Yothin, 2013. "Economic integration and government revenue from financial repression," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 271-283.
    5. Abhijit Sen Gupta, 2007. "Does Capital Account Openness Lower Inflation?," Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi Working Papers 191, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India.

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