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Lohngerechtigkeit und Geschlechternormen: Erhalten Männer eine Heiratsprämie?

Author

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  • Ben Jann
  • Barbara Zimmermann
  • Andreas Diekmann

Abstract

Der geschlechtsspezifische Lohnunterschied hat sich in der Schweiz ebenso wie in Deutschland in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten zwar leicht verringert, die Lücke ist aber immer noch beträchtlich und lässt sich nur zum Teil durch produktivitätsrelevante Faktoren erklären. Um zu untersuchen, ob sich ein entsprechender "gender wage gap" auch darin wiederfindet, welche Löhne als gerecht angesehen werden, haben wir im Rahmen von Schweizer Bevölkerungsumfragen drei randomisierte Vignettenexperimente durchgeführt. Im Unterschied zu den meisten anderen Experimenten wurde den Befragten nur jeweils eine Vignette vorgelegt, um Einflüsse sozialer Wünschbarkeit zu vermindern. Das erste Experiment belegt eine geschlechtsspezifische Doppelmoral bei der Einkommensbewertung: Bei Männern wurde ein gegebenes Einkommen eher als zu gering beurteilt als bei Frauen. Der Befund konnte in einem zweiten Experiment mit ähnlichem Design jedoch nicht repliziert werden, wobei ein zentraler Unterschied zwischen den beiden Experimenten in dem in den Vignetten beschriebenen Haushaltskontext lag. In einem dritten Experiment haben wir deshalb den Einfluss der familiären Situation systematisch untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass nur bei verheirateten Personen ein Unterschied zwischen Frauen und Männern gemacht wird, nicht jedoch bei Singles. Im Einklang mit dem Stereotyp des männlichen Haupternährers zeigt sich ein ausgeprägter Effekt einer "Heiratsprämie". Verheirateten Männern wird in der Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung bei sonst gleichen Merkmalen ein höherer Lohn zugestanden als verheirateten Frauen.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Jann & Barbara Zimmermann & Andreas Diekmann, 2020. "Lohngerechtigkeit und Geschlechternormen: Erhalten Männer eine Heiratsprämie?," University of Bern Social Sciences Working Papers 38, University of Bern, Department of Social Sciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:bss:wpaper:38
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender wage gap; just gender pay gap; marriage premium; gender roles; factorial survey; vignette experiment; survey experiment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • C99 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Other

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