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Modelling the cross-border use of collateral in payment systems

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  • Mark J Manning
  • Matthew Willison

Abstract

Banks often rely on collateralised intraday liquidity from the central bank in order to be able to effect payments in a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) payment system. If a bank is holding insufficient eligible collateral in a particular country, and therefore cannot obtain credit from the local central bank, it may have to delay payments. This constitutes a liquidity risk to the system. Furthermore, a bank operating in multiple systems may face a mismatch between the location of its collateral holdings and liquidity needs. In this paper, we examine the extent to which the liquidity risk arising from such a mismatch may be mitigated by allowing cross-border use of collateral. We develop a two-country, two-bank model in which risk-neutral banks minimise expected costs with respect to their collateral choice in each country. In our baseline model, in which each bank faces a liquidity need in only one country, we find that liquidity risk is indeed reduced by cross-border use of collateral. This result holds despite the fact that banks may find it optimal to economise on their total holdings of collateral. However, when we extend the model to allow for the possibility that a bank faces liquidity needs in both countries simultaneously, the total quantum of collateral held is important. Indeed, when a bank finds it optimal to reduce its total holdings, there may be an increase in liquidity risk in at least one country when simultaneous liquidity demands are realised.

Suggested Citation

  • Mark J Manning & Matthew Willison, 2006. "Modelling the cross-border use of collateral in payment systems," Bank of England working papers 286, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:286
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    File URL: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/research/Documents/workingpapers/2006/WP286.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Angelini, Paolo, 1998. "An analysis of competitive externalities in gross settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 1-18, January.
    2. Bech, Morten L. & Garratt, Rod, 2003. "The intraday liquidity management game," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 198-219, April.
    3. Heller, Daniel & Lengwiler, Yvan, 2003. "Payment obligations, reserve requirements, and the demand for central bank balances," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 419-432, March.
    4. Baltensperger, Ernst, 1974. "The Precautionary Demand for Reserves," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(1), pages 205-210, March.
    5. Chakravorti, Sujit, 2000. "Analysis of systemic risk in multilateral net settlement systems," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 9-30, January.
    6. Kobayakawa, Shuji, 1997. "The Comparative Analysis of Settlement Systems," CEPR Discussion Papers 1667, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Kahn, Charles M. & Roberds, William, 2001. "Real-time gross settlement and the costs of immediacy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 299-319, April.
    8. Furfine, Craig H & Stehm, Jeff, 1998. "Analyzing Alternative Intraday Credit Policies in Real-Time Gross Settlement Systems," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 832-848, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cronin, David, 2011. "Large-Value Payment System Design and Risk Management," Quarterly Bulletin Articles, Central Bank of Ireland, pages 78-88, January.
    2. Ball, Alan & Denbee, Edward & Manning, Mark & Wetherilt, Anne, 2011. "Financial Stability Paper No 11: Intraday Liquidity - Risk and Regulation," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 11, Bank of England.
    3. Fujiki, Hiroshi, 2014. "Institutional designs to alleviate liquidity shortages in a two-country model," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 32-46.
    4. Foote, Elizabeth, 2014. "Information asymmetries and spillover risk in settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 179-190.
    5. Hiroshi Fujiki, 2013. "Policy Measures to Alleviate Foreign Currency Liquidity Shortages under Aggregate Risk with Moral Hazard," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 504-536, December.
    6. Avouyi-Dovi, S. & Idier, J., 2010. "Central bank liquidity and market liquidity: the role of collateral provision on the French government debt securities market," Working papers 278, Banque de France.
    7. John P Jackson & Mark J Manning, 2007. "Comparing the pre-settlement risk implications of alternative clearing arrangements," Bank of England working papers 321, Bank of England.

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