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Real-time gross settlement and the costs of immediacy

  • Charles M. Kahn
  • William Roberds

Using a neoclassical monetary model, we investigate the welfare cost of a payment system that operates as a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system. We illustrate how the cost of such systems does not ultimately derive from factors such as "payments gridlock" but instead from the credit constraints imposed by RTGS. We also investigate the welfare consequences of various approaches to the allocation of daylight credit by central banks. The two most popular approaches, collateralization and charging an administered intraday interest rate, are shown to be effective along some dimensions but flawed in others.

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 98-21.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Publication status: Published in Journal of Monetary Economics, April 2001
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:98-21
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  1. Charles M. Kahn & James McAndrews & William Roberds, 1999. "Settlement risk under gross and net settlement," Working Paper 99-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  2. Champ, B. & Snith, B.D. & Williamson, D.S., 1991. "Currency Elasticity and Banking Panics: Theory and Evidence," RCER Working Papers 292, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  3. Green, Edward-J, 1997. "Money and Debt in the Structure of Payments," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 15(1), pages 63-87, May.
  4. Douglas D. Evanoff, 1988. "Daylight overdrafts: rationale and risks," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 18-29.
  5. Angelini, Paolo, 1998. "An analysis of competitive externalities in gross settlement systems," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 1-18, January.
  6. Charles M. Kahn & William Roberds, . "Payment System Settlement and Bank Incentives," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-32, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. William R. Emmons, 1997. "Recent developments in wholesale payments systems," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 23-43.
  8. Dirk Schoenmaker & Peter M. Garber & D. F. I. Folkerts-Landau, 1996. "The Reform of Wholesale Payment Systems and its Impacton Financial Markets," IMF Working Papers 96/37, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Lacker, Jeffrey M., 1997. "Clearing, settlement and monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 347-381, October.
  10. Diana Hancock & James A. Wilcox, 1996. "Intraday management of bank reserves: the effects of caps and fees on daylight overdrafts," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 870-913.
  11. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "Clearinghouse banks and banknote over-issue," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 101-115, August.
  12. Kobayakawa, Shuji, 1997. "The Comparative Analysis of Settlement Systems," CEPR Discussion Papers 1667, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Hancock, Diana & Wilcox, James A, 1996. "Intraday Management of Bank Reserves: The Effects of Caps and Fees on Daylight Overdrafts," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 870-908, November.
  14. Freeman, Scott, 1999. "Rediscounting under aggregate risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 197-216, February.
  15. Sargent, Thomas J & Wallace, Neil, 1982. "The Real-Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory: A Reconsideration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1212-36, December.
  16. Furfine, Craig H & Stehm, Jeff, 1998. "Analyzing Alternative Intraday Credit Policies in Real-Time Gross Settlement Systems," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 832-48, November.
  17. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "The Payments System, Liquidity, and Rediscounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1126-38, December.
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