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The Dollar - Mark axis


  • Gabriele Galati


Over the last two decades, most European currencies have tended to weaken against the mark as the latter strengthened against the dollar. Moreover, the strength of the response of European cross-rates has tended to remain in the same order over time. I first set out the stylised facts of this phenomenon, referred to as the dollar-mark axis, and then try to identify its determinants. In addition to exchange rate policy, I examine the correlation of cyclical fluctuations and trade links (two factors suggested by the theory of optimum currency areas) and the bias of international investors in the currency composition of their portfolios.

Suggested Citation

  • Gabriele Galati, 1999. "The Dollar - Mark axis," BIS Working Papers 74, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:74

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Rose, Andrew K, 1998. "The Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Area Criteria," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 1009-1025, July.
    2. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Wei, Shang-Jin, 1993. "Emerging Currency Blocs," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233209, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    3. Clarida, Richard & Gali, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 1998. "Monetary policy rules in practice Some international evidence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1033-1067, June.
    4. Glenn Rudebusch & Lars E.O. Svensson, 1999. "Policy Rules for Inflation Targeting," NBER Chapters,in: Monetary Policy Rules, pages 203-262 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. A. Bénassy-Quéré, 1997. "Optimal pegs for asian currencies," THEMA Working Papers 97-07, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    6. Paolo del Giovane & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 1998. "The Behaviour of the Dollar and Exchange Rates in Europe: Empirical Evidence and Possible Explanations," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 328, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 1999. "The Taylor Rule: A Useful Monetary Policy Benchmark for the Euro Area?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 85-116, April.
    8. von Hagen, Jurgen & Neumann, Manfred J M, 1994. "Real Exchange Rates within and between Currency Areas: How Far Away Is EMU?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 236-244, May.
    9. Bayoumi, Tamim & Eichengreen, Barry, 1996. "Operationalizing the Theory of Optimum Currency Areas," CEPR Discussion Papers 1484, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fathi Abid & Moncef Habibi, 2010. "Hedging Transaction Exposure within the Context of a Basket Foreign Exchange Rate Arrangement," Working Papers 523, Economic Research Forum, revised 05 Jan 2010.
    2. Orlowski, Lucjan T., 2016. "Co-movements of non-Euro EU currencies with the Euro," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 376-383.
    3. Gabriele Galati & Philip Wooldridge, 2009. "The euro as a reserve currency: a challenge to the pre-eminence of the US dollar?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(1), pages 1-23.
    4. Robert N McCauley, 2002. "Setting Monetary Policy in East Asia: Goals, Developments and Institutions," Occasional Papers, South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre, number occ33.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration


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