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Rent creation and sharing: new measures and impacts on TFP

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  • Gilbert Cette
  • Jimmy Lopez
  • Jacques Mairesse

Abstract

This analysis proposes new measures of rent creation or (notional) mark-up and workers’ share of rents on cross-country-industry panel data. While the usual measures of mark-up rate implicitly assume perfect labor markets, our approach relaxes this assumption, and takes into account that part of firms’ rent created in an industry is shared with workers to an extent which can vary with their skills. Our results are based on a cross-country-industry panel covering 14 OECD countries and 19 industries over the 1985-2005 period. In a first part of our analysis we draw on OECD indicators of product and labor market (anticompetitive) regulations to test how they are related to our new measures of mark-up and rent-sharing. We find that anti-competitive Non-Manufacturing Regulations (NMR) affect mark-up rates positively, and hence firms’ rent creation and workers’ share of rent, whereas Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) has no impact on rent creation, but boosts workers’ wages per hour. However, we observe that these wage increases are offset by a negative impact from EPL on hours worked per output unit, leading to a non-significant impact of EPL on workers’ share of rents. The effects of EPL for low-skilled workers appear to be more pronounced than those for medium-skilled workers, both being much greater than for highly-skilled workers. In the second part of our analysis, we estimate the impacts of our new measures on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in the framework of a straightforward regression model. We use the OECD regulations indicators as relevant instrument to take care of endogeneity and to make sure that the resulting estimates assess the proper regulation impacts of rent creation and sharing without being biased by other confounding effects. We find that less competition in the product and labor markets as assessed by our measures of mark-up and workers’ share of rents have both substantial negative impacts on TFP.

Suggested Citation

  • Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse, 2018. "Rent creation and sharing: new measures and impacts on TFP," Working papers 674, Banque de France.
  • Handle: RePEc:bfr:banfra:674
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse, 2016. "Product and Labour Market Regulations, Production Prices, Wages and Productivity," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 7(2).
    2. Andrea Bassanini & Luca Nunziata & Danielle Venn, 2009. "Job protection legislation and productivity growth in OECD countries [Appropriate growth policy: a unifying framework]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 24(58), pages 349-402.
    3. Sabien Dobbelaere & Jacques Mairesse, 2010. "Comparing Micro-evidence on Rent Sharing from Three Different Approaches," NBER Working Papers 16220, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Sébastien Jean & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2015. "Product market regulation and wage premia in Europe and North America: An empirical investigation," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 144, pages 1-28.
    5. Olivier Blanchard & Francesco Giavazzi, 2003. "Macroeconomic Effects of Regulation and Deregulation in Goods and Labor Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 879-907.
    6. Dobbelaere, Sabien & Mairesse, Jacques, 2018. "Comparing micro-evidence on rent sharing from two different econometric models," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 18-26.
    7. Rachel Griffith & Rupert Harrison & Helen Simpson, 2010. "Product Market Reform and Innovation in the EU," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 112(2), pages 389-415, June.
    8. Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse, 2016. "Market Regulations, Prices, and Productivity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(5), pages 104-108, May.
    9. Nicoletti, Giuseppe & Pryor, Frederic L., 2006. "Subjective and objective measures of governmental regulations in OECD nations," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 433-449, March.
    10. Spector, David, 2004. "Competition and the capital-labor conflict," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 25-38, February.
    11. Sabien Dobbelaere & Jacques Mairesse, 2013. "Panel data estimates of the production function and product and labor market imperfections," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 1-46, January.
    12. Philippe Askenazy & Gilbert Cette & Paul Maarek, 2018. "Rent‐Sharing and Workers' Bargaining Power: An Empirical Cross‐Country/ Cross‐Industry Panel Analysis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 120(2), pages 563-596, April.
    13. Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse, 2016. "Labour Market Regulations and Capital Intensity," NBER Working Papers 22603, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Guglielmo Barone & Federico Cingano, 2011. "Service Regulation and Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 931-957, September.
    15. Ghazala Azmat & Alan Manning & John Van Reenen, 2012. "Privatization and the Decline of Labour's Share: International Evidence from Network Industries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 79(315), pages 470-492, July.
    16. Paul Conway & Donato de Rosa & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Faye Steiner, 2007. "Product market regulation and productivity convergence," OECD Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2006(2), pages 39-76.
    17. Gilbert Cette & Jimmy Lopez & Jacques Mairesse, 2016. "Labour Market Regulations and Capital Intensity," NBER Working Papers 22603, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Paul Conway & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2007. "Product Market Regulation and Productivity Convergence: OECD Evidence and Implications for Canada," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 15, pages 3-24, Fall.
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    Cited by:

    1. Claire Alestra & Gilbert Cette & Valérie Chouard & Rémy Lecat, 2020. "Long-term growth impact of climate change and policies: the Advanced Climate Change Long-term (ACCL) scenario building model," AMSE Working Papers 2007, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, France.
    2. Gutierrez, German & Philippon, Thomas, 2018. "How EU Markets Became More Competitive Than US Markets: A Study of Institutional Drift," CEPR Discussion Papers 12983, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Cette, Gilbert & Koehl, Lorraine & Philippon, Thomas, 2020. "Labor share," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).
    4. Campos, Nauro F. & Macchiarelli, Corrado, 2021. "The dynamics of core and periphery in the European monetary union: A new approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    5. Chantal Kegels & Dirk Verwerft, 2018. "Working Paper 09-18 - Economic impact of professional services reform in Belgium - A DSGE simulation," Working Papers 1809, Federal Planning Bureau, Belgium.
    6. Kyoji Fukao & Cristiano Perugini, 2021. "The Long‐Run Dynamics of the Labor Share in Japan," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 67(2), pages 445-480, June.
    7. Alestra, C. & Cette, G. & Chouard, V. & Lecat, R., 2022. "Growth impact of climate change and response policies: The advanced climate change long-term (ACCL) model1," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 96-112.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    product market regulations; labor market regulations; mark-up; rent-sharing; TFP.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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