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Demanda Laboral en el Sector Manufacturero COlombiano: 1977-1999

  • Carlos Arango Arango

    ()

  • Angela Milena Rojas

    ()

En este documento se estima un modelo dinámico de la demanda laboral industrial en Colombia con base en datos de panel a nivel de establecimiento para el período 1977-1999. Los resultados muestran cambios importantes en la función de demanda de trabajo asociados con el período de apertura económica. En particular, se encuentra que las firmas han aumentado su velocidad de ajuste, y que en proceso de apertura económica de los 90 aumentó la elasticidad de sustitución factorial. No obstante, las firmas más jóvenes son menos elásticas al salario que las empresas más antiguas, en tanto las últimas presentan una velocidad de ajuste menor que las primeras frente a choques de largo plazo. Finalmente, hay evidencia significativa de un proceso técnico ahorrador de trabajo en la firma manufacturera el cual empieza temprano en la década de los 80 pero se profundiza durante la década de los 90. Dada la mayor flexibilidad del establecimiento industrial para ajustar su nómina es posible que los trabajadores enfrenten un mayor grado de incertidumbre en sus condiciones laborales frente a choques de precios relativos o fluctuaciones de la actividad económica.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 247.

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  1. Adrian Wood, 1995. "How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 57-80, Summer.
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  5. Matthew J. Slaughter, 1997. "International Trade and Labor-Demand Elasticities," NBER Working Papers 6262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Symons, J & Layard, R, 1984. "Neoclassical Demand for Labour Functions for Six Major Economies," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(376), pages 788-99, December.
  8. Wood Júnior, Thomaz, 1995. "Workers," RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV-EAESP Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (Brazil), vol. 35(2), January.
  9. Nickell, Stephen, 1984. "An Investigation of the Determinants of Manufacturing Employment in the United Kingdom," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 529-57, October.
  10. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  11. Fajnzylber, Pablo & Maloney, William F., 2000. "Labor demand andtrade reform in Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2491, The World Bank.
  12. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  13. Krishna, Pravin & Mitra, Devashish & Chinoy, Sajjid, 2001. "Trade liberalization and labor demand elasticities: evidence from Turkey," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 391-409, December.
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