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Canada’s Exchange Rate Regime and North American Economic Integration: The Role of Risk-Sharing Mechanisms

  • Zahir, Antia
  • Djoudad, Ramdane
  • St-Amant, Pierre

Our contribution in this paper is threefold. First, we survey the empirical literature on consumption smoothing mechanisms of regional economic shocks. Second, building on the work of Asdrubali et al. (1996), we present evidence on the role played by various smoothing mechanisms for specific economic shocks affecting Canadian provinces. Third, we assess whether smoothing mechanisms play a role at the North American level in facilitating the adjustment to shocks affecting Canada and the United States specifically. Our main conclusion is that there appears to be substantially more smoothing of specific provincial shocks across Canadian provinces than there is smoothing of specific shocks affecting the two countries. From this perspective, and in the absence of major structural changes, a Canada–U.S. monetary union would pose several challenges. We also conclude that the “quantity anomaly,” i.e., the empirical finding that consumption tends to be less correlated than output across countries and across U.S. states, is not present in Canadian provincial data.

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Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 99-17.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:99-17
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  1. Lafrance, Robert & St-Amant, Pierre, 1999. "Optimal Currency Areas: A Review of the Recent Literature," Working Papers 99-16, Bank of Canada.
  2. Sorensen, Bent E. & Yosha, Oved, 1998. "International risk sharing and European monetary unification," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 211-238, August.
  3. Bayoumi, Tamim & Sarno, Lucio & Taylor, Mark P, 1999. "European Capital Flows and Regional Risk," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 67(1), pages 21-38, January.
  4. Melitz, Jacques & Zumer, Frédéric, 1999. "Interregional and International Risk Sharing and Lessons for EMU," CEPR Discussion Papers 2154, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  14. Tamim Bayoumi & Michael W. Klein, 1995. "A Provincial View of Capital Mobility," NBER Working Papers 5115, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  16. Helpman, Elhanan, 1981. "An Exploration in the Theory of Exchange-Rate Regimes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 865-90, October.
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  18. Helpman, Elhanan & Razin, Assaf, 1982. "A Comparison of Exchange Rate Regimes in the Presence of Imperfect Capital Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 23(2), pages 365-88, June.
  19. Tesar, Linda L. & Werner, Ingrid M., 1995. "Home bias and high turnover," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 467-492, August.
  20. Bayoumi, Tamim & Masson, Paul R., 1995. "Fiscal flows in the United States and Canada: Lessons for monetary union in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 253-274, February.
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  23. Stafano Athanasoulis & Eric van Wincoop, 1998. "Risksharing within the United States: what have financial markets and fiscal federalism accomplished?," Research Paper 9808, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
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