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Transforming public pensions: A mixed scheme with a credit granted by the state


  • M. Carmen Boado-Penas
  • Julia Eisenberg
  • Ralf Korn


Birth rates have dramatically decreased and, with continuous improvements in life expectancy, pension expenditure is on an irreversibly increasing path. This will raise serious concerns for the sustainability of the public pension systems usually financed on a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) basis where current contributions cover current pension expenditure. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to propose a mixed pension system that consists of a combination of a classical PAYG scheme and an increase of the contribution rate invested in a funding scheme. The investment of the funding part is designed so that the PAYG pension system is financially sustainable at a particular level of probability and at the same time provide some gains to individuals. In this sense, we make the individuals be an active part to face the demographic risks inherent in the PAYG and re-establish its financial sustainability.

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  • M. Carmen Boado-Penas & Julia Eisenberg & Ralf Korn, 2019. "Transforming public pensions: A mixed scheme with a credit granted by the state," Papers 1912.12329,
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1912.12329

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    6. De Menil, Georges & Murtin, Fabrice & Sheshinski, Eytan, 2006. "Planning for the optimal mix of paygo tax and funded savings," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(1), pages 1-25, March.
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    8. Devolder, Pierre & Melis, Roberta, 2015. "Optimal Mix Between Pay As You Go And Funding For Pension Liabilities In A Stochastic Framework," ASTIN Bulletin, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(3), pages 551-575, September.
    9. Markus Knell, 2010. "The Optimal Mix Between Funded and Unfunded Pension Systems When People Care About Relative Consumption," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(308), pages 710-733, October.
    10. Elsa Fornero, 2015. "Economic-financial Literacy and (Sustainable) Pension Reforms: Why the Former is a Key Ingredient for the Latter," Bankers, Markets & Investors, ESKA Publishing, issue 134, pages 6-16, January-F.
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