IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Efficiency of the Price Formation Process in Presence of High Frequency Participants: a Mean Field Game analysis

  • Aim\'e Lachapelle
  • Jean-Michel Lasry
  • Charles-Albert Lehalle
  • Pierre-Louis Lions

This paper deals with a stochastic order-driven market model with waiting costs, for order books with heterogenous traders. Offer and demand of liquidity drives price formation and traders anticipate future evolutions of the order book. The natural framework we use is mean field game theory, a class of stochastic differential games with a continuum of anonymous players. Several sources of heterogeneity are considered including the mean size of orders. Thus we are able to consider the coexistence of Institutional Investors and High Frequency Traders (HFT). We provide both analytical solutions and numerical experiments. Implications on classical quantities are explored: order book size, prices, and effective bid/ask spread. According to the model, in markets with Institutional Investors only we show the existence of inefficient liquidity imbalances in equilibrium, with two symmetrical situations corresponding to what we call liquidity calls for liquidity. During these situations the transaction price significantly moves away from the fair price. However this macro phenomenon disappears in markets with both Institutional Investors and HFT, although a more precise study shows that the benefits of the new situation go to HFT only, leaving Institutional Investors even with higher trading costs.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: Latest version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by in its series Papers with number 1305.6323.

in new window

Date of creation: May 2013
Date of revision: Aug 2015
Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1305.6323
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Charles-Albert Lehalle & Sophie Laruelle (ed.), 2013. "Market Microstructure in Practice," World Scientific Books, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., number 8967.
  2. Christian Y. Robert & Mathieu Rosenbaum, 2011. "A New Approach for the Dynamics of Ultra-High-Frequency Data: The Model with Uncertainty Zones," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 9(2), pages 344-366, Spring.
  3. E. Bacry & S. Delattre & M. Hoffmann & J. F. Muzy, 2013. "Modelling microstructure noise with mutually exciting point processes," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 65-77, January.
  4. Thierry Foucault & Albert J. Menkveld, 2008. "Competition for Order Flow and Smart Order Routing Systems," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(1), pages 119-158, 02.
  5. Sophie Laruelle & Charles-Albert Lehalle & Gilles Pag\`es, 2009. "Optimal split of orders across liquidity pools: a stochastic algorithm approach," Papers 0910.1166,, revised May 2010.
  6. Benjamin Moll & Robert E. Lucas, 2011. "Knowledge Growth and the Allocation of Time," 2011 Meeting Papers 1030, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  7. A. Gareche & G. Disdier & J. Kockelkoren & J. -P. Bouchaud, 2013. "A Fokker-Planck description for the queue dynamics of large tick stocks," Papers 1304.6819,
  8. Ioanid Rosu, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of the Limit Order Book," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(11), pages 4601-4641, November.
  9. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2003. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Discussion Paper Series dp321, The Federmann Center for the Study of Rationality, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
  10. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
  11. Jim Gatheral, 2010. "No-dynamic-arbitrage and market impact," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(7), pages 749-759.
  12. Ho, Thomas S Y & Stoll, Hans R, 1983. " The Dynamics of Dealer Markets under Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1053-74, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1305.6323. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.