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The Price Impact of Order Book Events

  • Rama Cont
  • Arseniy Kukanov
  • Sasha Stoikov
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    We study the price impact of order book events - limit orders, market orders and cancelations - using the NYSE TAQ data for 50 U.S. stocks. We show that, over short time intervals, price changes are mainly driven by the order flow imbalance, defined as the imbalance between supply and demand at the best bid and ask prices. Our study reveals a linear relation between order flow imbalance and price changes, with a slope inversely proportional to the market depth. These results are shown to be robust to seasonality effects, and stable across time scales and across stocks. We argue that this linear price impact model, together with a scaling argument, implies the empirically observed "square-root" relation between price changes and trading volume. However, the relation between price changes and trade volume is found to be noisy and less robust than the one based on order flow imbalance.

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    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1011.6402
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    Paper provided by arXiv.org in its series Papers with number 1011.6402.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2010
    Date of revision: Apr 2011
    Publication status: Published in JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL ECONOMETRICS (Winter 2014) 12 (1): 47-88
    Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1011.6402
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://arxiv.org/

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    1. McInish, Thomas H & Wood, Robert A, 1992. " An Analysis of Intraday Patterns in Bid/Ask Spreads for NYSE Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 753-64, June.
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    7. Lee, Charles M C & Ready, Mark J, 1991. " Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 733-46, June.
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    10. Hautsch, Nikolaus & Huang, Ruihong, 2009. "The market impact of a limit order," CFS Working Paper Series 2009/23, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    11. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-55, January.
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    15. Lee, Charles M C & Mucklow, Belinda & Ready, Mark J, 1993. "Spreads, Depths, and the Impact of Earnings Information: An Intraday Analysis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 345-74.
    16. Vasiliki Plerou & Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Xavier Gabaix & H. Eugene Stanley, 2001. "Quantifying Stock Price Response to Demand Fluctuations," Papers cond-mat/0106657, arXiv.org.
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