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Commuting, transport tax reform and the labour market: Employer-paid parking and the relative efficiency of revenue recycling instruments

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  • DE BORGER, Bruno
  • WUYTS, Bart

Abstract

In this paper we study the welfare effects of a budgetary neutral increase in taxes on car commuters in a model that takes into account the presence of employer-paid parking at the workplace. Results include the following. First, we find that the presence of employer-paid parking substantially increases the welfare effect of such a tax reform, independent of the use of the revenues. The intuition is that congestion taxes not only correct congestion externalities, they also reduce the inefficiency caused by employer-paid parking. Second, different congestion effects of alternative recycling instruments and the presence of employer-paid parking jointly imply that recycling the tax revenues via higher public transport subsidies may yield much more favourable welfare effects than previously believed. It can easily outperform recycling the tax revenues via lower labour taxes. Third, cashing out parking costs to public transport users is found to generate substantial positive welfare effects. The theoretical predictions are illustrated using a numerical model calibrated on Belgian data.

Suggested Citation

  • DE BORGER, Bruno & WUYTS, Bart, 2007. "Commuting, transport tax reform and the labour market: Employer-paid parking and the relative efficiency of revenue recycling instruments," Working Papers 2007020, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Business and Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ant:wpaper:2007020
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Fetene, Gebeyehu M. & Hirte, Georg & Kaplan, Sigal & Prato, Carlo G. & Tscharaktschiew, Stefan, 2016. "The economics of workplace charging," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 93-118.
    2. Brueckner, Jan K. & Franco, Sofia F., 2018. "Employer-paid parking, mode choice, and suburbanization," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 35-46.
    3. van Ommeren, Jos & Wentink, Derk & Dekkers, Jasper, 2011. "The real price of parking policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 25-31, July.
    4. Stef Proost, 2011. "Theory of External Costs," Chapters, in: André de Palma & Robin Lindsey & Emile Quinet & Roger Vickerman (ed.), A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 14, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Hirte, Georg & Tscharaktschiew, Stefan, 2018. "The impact of anti-congestion policies and the role of labor-supply margins," CEPIE Working Papers 04/18, Technische Universität Dresden, Center of Public and International Economics (CEPIE).
    6. Hirte, Georg & Tscharaktschiew, Stefan, 2011. "Income tax deduction of commuting expenses and tax funding in an urban CGE study: the case of German cities," Dresden Discussion Paper Series in Economics 02/11, Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics.
    7. Tscharaktschiew, Stefan & Reimann, Felix, 2021. "On employer-paid parking and parking (cash-out) policy: A formal synthesis of different perspectives," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 499-516.
    8. Franco, Sofia F., 2017. "Downtown parking supply, work-trip mode choice and urban spatial structure," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 107-122.
    9. Pons-Rigat, Aleix & Proost, Stef & Turró, Mateu, 2020. "Workplace parking policies in an agglomeration: An illustration for Barcelona," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 24(C).
    10. Evangelinos, Christos & Tscharaktschiew, Stefan & Marcucci, Edoardo & Gatta, Valerio, 2018. "Pricing workplace parking via cash-out: Effects on modal choice and implications for transport policy," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 369-380.

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