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Agricultural Protection Growth in Europe, 1870-1969


  • Swinnen, Johan F.M.


Dramatic changes took place in agricultural policies in Europe in the 19th and 20th century. In the 1860s European nations agreed on a series of trade agreements which spread free trade across the continent. In the 1960s European nations concluded an international agreement which spread heavy government intervention and protection against imports across the continent. This paper offers hypotheses as to the causes of these dramatic changes in agricultural protection.

Suggested Citation

  • Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Agricultural Protection Growth in Europe, 1870-1969," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 50296, World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:wbadwp:50296

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. De Gorter, Harry & Swinnen, Johan, 2002. "Political economy of agricultural policy," Handbook of Agricultural Economics,in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 36, pages 1893-1943 Elsevier.
    2. Olper, Alessandro, 1998. "Political Economy Determinants of Agricultural Protection Levels in EU Member States: An Empirical Investigation," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 463-487.
    3. Anderson, Kym, 1995. "Lobbying Incentives and the Pattern of Protection in Rich and Poor Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(2), pages 401-423, January.
    4. Johan F. M. Swinnen & Harry Gorter, 1993. "Why Small Groups And Low Income Sectors Obtain Subsidies: The "Altruistic" Side Of A "Self-Interested" Government," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(3), pages 285-293, November.
    5. Swinnen, Johan F. M., 2002. "Political reforms, rural crises, and land tenure in western Europe," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 371-394, August.
    6. Jan Pokrivcak & Christophe Crombez & Johan F. M. Swinnen, 2006. "The status quo bias and reform of the Common Agricultural Policy: impact of voting rules, the European Commission and external changes," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 562-590, December.
    7. Schonhardt-Bailey, Cheryl, 1998. "Parties and Interests in the," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(02), pages 291-332, April.
    8. Gardner, Bruce L, 1987. "Causes of U.S. Farm Commodity Programs," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(2), pages 290-310, April.
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    More about this item


    Political economy; agricultural distortions; high-income countries; economic development of Europe; F13; N53; O13; Q18; P16;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • N53 - Economic History - - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Extractive Industries - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism

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