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Price effects of an emissions trading scheme in New Zealand


  • Lennox, James A.
  • Andrew, Robbie
  • Forgie, V.


Implementation of a New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) will begin in 2008, beginning with forestry, subsequently including energy and industrial emissions, and finally, agricultural GHGs from 2013. Reducing agricultural emissions is a major challenge for New Zealand as they account for over half its total GHG emissions. On the other hand, agriculture is critical to the economy, with its basic and processed products accounting for a third of exports. We use an environmental input-output model to analyse direct and indirect cost impacts of emissions pricing on food and fibre sectors. At NZ $25/t CO₂-eq, costs of energy-related emissions on the food and fibre sectors are very small; however, costs of agricultural emissions post 2013 would substantially impact on sheep, beef and dairy farming. Costeffective mitigation measures and land use changes should help reduce micro- and macroeconomic impacts, but the latter may also risk 'emissions leakage'.

Suggested Citation

  • Lennox, James A. & Andrew, Robbie & Forgie, V., 2008. "Price effects of an emissions trading scheme in New Zealand," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6678, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:eaa107:6678

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Antonia Cornwell & John Creedy, 1996. "Carbon taxation, prices and inequality in Australia," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 17(3), pages 21-38, August.
    2. Saunders, Caroline M. & Wreford, Anita & Cagatay, Selim, 2006. "Trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions: the case of dairying in the European Union and New Zealand," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 50(4), December.
    3. Lenzen, Manfred, 1998. "Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 495-506, May.
    4. Joanna Hendy & Suzi Kerr & Troy Baisden, 2006. "Greenhouse gas emissions charges and credits agricultural land: what can a model tell us?," Working Papers 06_04, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    5. Creedy, John & Sleeman, Catherine, 2006. "Carbon taxation, prices and welfare in New Zealand," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 333-345, May.
    6. Xavier Labandeira & José M. Labeaga, 1999. "Combining input-output analysis and micro-simulation to assess the effects of carbon taxation on Spanish households," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 20(3), pages 305-320, September.
    7. Elizabeth Symons & John Proops & Philip Gay, 1994. "Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emissions: a simulation analysis for the UK," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 19-43, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ignacio Pérez Domínguez & Wolfgang Britz & Karin Holm-Müller, 2009. "Trading schemes for greenhouse gas emissions from European agriculture: A comparative analysis based on different implementation options," Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies - Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et Environnement, INRA Department of Economics, vol. 90(3), pages 287-308.
    2. Fellmann, Thomas & Dominguez, Ignacio Perez & Witzke, Heinz Peter & Oudendag, Diti, 2012. "Mitigating GHG emissions from EU agriculture– what difference does the policy make?," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126815, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

    More about this item


    emissions trading; input-output price model; agricultural greenhouse gases; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use;

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