IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea00/21877.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Barriers For Development In Zambian Small- And Medium-Size Farms: Evidence From Micro-Data

Author

Listed:
  • Kimhi, Ayal
  • Chiwele, Dennis K.

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to identify factors which limit the ability of Zambian farmers to increase Maize productivity and/or diversify their crop mix. Both may enable wealth accumulation, investments, and further expansion. Specifically, we link variations in agricultural decisions, practices, and outcomes, to variations in the tightness of the different constraints. We model crop production decisions as having recursive structure. Initially, farmers decide on land allocation among the different crops, based on their information set at planting time. Then, as new information (weather, market conditions) is revealed, farmers can change output by influencing the yield. This recursive structure enables to separate the effects of the constraints on the different stages of production. We therefore conduct estimation in two stages: we first estimate the fraction of land allocated to Maize as a dependent variable that is censored from below and from above, so that its predicted value is necessarily between zero and one. The yield of Maize is estimated in the second stage as a linear function of calculated land allotment (to avoid simultaneity bias) and the other state variables. Environmental and demographic variables also serve as explanatory variables in each stage. The first-stage results indicate that crop diversification can be promoted by rural road construction, developing markets for agricultural products, increasing the availability of seeds, draught animals, and farm machines, increasing women's farm work participation, and increasing the size of landholdings. Specialization in Maize can be promoted by increasing the availability of credit, fertilizers, hired permanent workers, and irrigation knowledge, and improving the timeliness of input delivery. The second-stage results show that the yield of Maize is inversely related to the area of Maize cultivated and to the operator's age, and is lower in female-headed farm households. Maize productivity can be improved by increasing the availability of seeds, fertilizers, labor, draught animals, machines, and credit.

Suggested Citation

  • Kimhi, Ayal & Chiwele, Dennis K., 2000. "Barriers For Development In Zambian Small- And Medium-Size Farms: Evidence From Micro-Data," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21877, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea00:21877
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21877
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Foster, Kenneth A. & Mwanaumo, Anthony, 1995. "Estimation of dynamic maize supply response in Zambia," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 12(1), April.
    2. Holden, Stein T., 1993. "Peasant household modelling: Farming systems evolution and sustainability in northern Zambia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 241-267, September.
    3. Borjas, George J. & Sueyoshi, Glenn T., 1994. "A two-stage estimator for probit models with structural group effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 165-182.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Crop Diversification; Maize Productivity; Recursive Decisions; Two-stage Estimation; Censored Dependent Variables; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O1; Q1;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea00:21877. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/aaeaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.