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Working Paper 92 - Education Expenditures and School Enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and Other SANE Countries

Using panel data of African countries from 1990 to 2002, this paper studies the relationship between government expenditure on education enrolments, with illustration from Nigeria and other SANE (South Africa, Algeria, Nigeria, and Egypt) countries at the primary and secondary school levels. The results show that government expenditure on education has a positive and significant direct impact on primary and secondary education enrolment rates. Among the SANE, Nigeria has the greatest positive influence on increasing both primary and secondary education enrolment rates. The paper also finds that other policy interventions, such as consolidating and sustaining democracy, accelerating national income, and international community fulfilling its aid promises to Africa, can also be helpful in moving African countries (including the SANE) toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such, higher expenditure alone is not sufficient to achieve the MDGs or to attain higher quantum and quality of human capital.

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Paper provided by African Development Bank in its series Working Paper Series with number 227.

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Date of creation: 18 Dec 2007
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Handle: RePEc:adb:adbwps:227
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  1. Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin, 1997. "Decomposing social indicators using distributional data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 125-139, March.
  2. International Monetary Fund, 2002. "Moreon the Effectiveness of Public Spendingon Health Care and Education; A Covariance Structure Model," IMF Working Papers 02/90, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2002. "The effectiveness of government spending on education and health care in developing and transition economies," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 717-737, November.
  4. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 1997. "What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Recent Changes in Distribution and Poverty?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 357-82, May.
  5. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1997. "Child mortality and public spending on health : how much does money matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1864, The World Bank.
  6. Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, 04.
  7. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
  8. Samer Al-Samarrai, 2006. "Achieving education for all: how much does money matter?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(2), pages 179-206.
  9. Andrea Bassanini & Stefano Scarpetta, 2001. "Does Human Capital Matter for Growth in OECD Countries?: Evidence from Pooled Mean-Group Estimates," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 282, OECD Publishing.
  10. Anne O. Krueger, 1997. "Nominal Anchor Exchange Rate Policies as a Domestic Distortion," NBER Working Papers 5968, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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