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Education and adjustment : a review of the literature


  • Noss, Andrew


Many recent studies evaluate the effects of adjustment on economic growth and on the poor, but few assess the specific impacts of adjustment on the education sector. The author assesses what is known about how adjustment affects education. He concludes that reliable evidence is limited. Most critics of adjustment programs say little about education directly and do not distinguish the effects of adjustment measures from the effects of internal recession, fiscal constraints, or structural problems. Early adjustment programs ignored education issues - but adjustment lasted longer than expected, so the Bank has broadened its approach to protect education from the negative effects of adjustment. Relevant data are scarce and of poor quality. The most common indicators - aggregate financing and enrollment indicators - are difficult to interpret. Moreover, analyses may compare indicators between two before-and-after points but say nothing about how or why indicators change. The effects of changes in financing on coverage, quality, and equity of education are by no means obvious. Education has a long gestation period, so the impacts of adjustment may not yet be evident. Country studies are probably the best framework for analyzing the adjustment process. The database of key education indicators must be improved.

Suggested Citation

  • Noss, Andrew, 1991. "Education and adjustment : a review of the literature," Policy Research Working Paper Series 701, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:701

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    Cited by:

    1. Branka Andjelkovic & Alexander Chubrik & Marek Dabrowski & Roman Mogilevsky & Irina Sinitsina & Przemyslaw Wozniak, 2010. "Challenges and Trajectories of Fiscal Policy and PFM Reform in CEE/CIS," CASE Network Reports 0092, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Lee, Jong-Wha & Francisco, Ruth, 2012. "Human capital accumulation in emerging Asia, 1970–2030," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 76-86.
    3. AfDB AfDB, 2007. "Working Paper 92 - Education Expenditures and School Enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and Other SANE Countries," Working Paper Series 2225, African Development Bank.
    4. repec:rss:jnljee:v3i6p5 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. AfDB AfDB, 2007. "Working Paper 92 - Education Expenditures and School Enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and Other SANE Countries," Working Paper Series 2305, African Development Bank.
    6. repec:cuf:journl:y:2014:v:15:i:2:gupta:davoodi:tiongson is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Andrew Sumner & Meera Tiwari, 2005. "Poverty and economic policy: what happens when researchers disagree?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(6), pages 791-801.
    8. Rose, Pauline, 1995. "Female education and adjustment programs: A crosscountry statistical analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1931-1949, November.
    9. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2002. "The effectiveness of government spending on education and health care in developing and transition economies," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 717-737, November.
    10. Baldacci, Emanuele & Clements, Benedict & Gupta, Sanjeev & Cui, Qiang, 2008. "Social Spending, Human Capital, and Growth in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1317-1341, August.


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