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"Success Taxes," Entrepreneurial Entry, and Innovation

In: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 5

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  • William M. Gentry
  • R. Glenn Hubbard

Abstract

Interest in the role of entrepreneurial entry in innovation raises the question of the extent to which tax policy encourages or discourages entry. We find that, while the level of the marginal tax rate has a negative effect in entrepreneurial entry, the progressivity of the tax also discourages entrepreneurship, and significantly so for some groups of households. These effects are principally traceable to the upside' or success' convexity of the household tax schedule. Prospective entrants from a priori innovative industries and occupations are no less affected by the considerations we examine than other prospective entrants. In terms of destination-based industry and occupation measures of innovative entrepreneurs, we find mixed evidence on whether innovative entrepreneurs differ from the general population; the results for entrepreneurs moving to innovative industries suggest that they may be unaffected by tax convexity but the possible endogeneity of this measure of innovative entrepreneurs confounds interpreting this specification. Using education as a measure of potential for innovation, we find that tax convexity discourages entry into self-employment for people of all educational backgrounds. Overall, we find little evidence that the tax effects are focused simply on the employment changes of less skilled or less promising potential entrants.
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  • William M. Gentry & R. Glenn Hubbard, 2005. ""Success Taxes," Entrepreneurial Entry, and Innovation," NBER Chapters, in: Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 5, pages 87-108, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:10808
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    Cited by:

    1. Aghion, Philippe & Akcigit, Ufuk & Fernández-Villaverde, Jesús, 2012. "Optimal Capital Versus Labor Taxation with Innovation-Led Growth," Scholarly Articles 27755236, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    2. Trey Malone & Antonios M. Koumpias & Per L. Bylund, 2019. "Entrepreneurial response to interstate regulatory competition: evidence from a behavioral discrete choice experiment," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 172-192, April.
    3. Georgarakos, Dimitris & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and survival dynamics of immigrants to the U.S. and their descendants," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 161-170, April.
    4. Zoltan Acs & Laszlo Szerb, 2007. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth and Public Policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 109-122, March.
    5. Aghion, Philippe & Akcigit, Ufuk & Cagé, Julia & Kerr, William R., 2016. "Taxation, corruption, and growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 24-51.
    6. Haufler, Andreas & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2014. "Entrepreneurial innovations and taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 13-31.
    7. Gordon, Roger & Sarada,, 2018. "How should taxes be designed to encourage entrepreneurship?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 1-11.
    8. Hans Bacher & Marius Brülhart, 2013. "Progressive taxes and firm births," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 20(1), pages 129-168, February.
    9. Ruud A. de Mooij & Gaetan Nicodeme, 2007. "Corporate Tax Policy, Entrepreneurship and Incorporation in the EU," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    10. Ruud A. De Mooij & Gaëtan J.A. Nicodème, 2006. "Corporate Tax Policy, Entrepreneurship and Incorporation in the EU," CESifo Working Paper Series 1883, CESifo.
    11. Maksim Belitski & Farzana Chowdhury & Sameeksha Desai, 2016. "Taxes, corruption, and entry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 201-216, June.
    12. Ajay K. Agrawal & Iain M. Cockburn & Alberto Galasso & Alexander Oettl, 2012. "Why are Some Regions More Innovative than Others? The Role of Firm Size Diversity," NBER Working Papers 17793, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz & Pierre Garello, 2014. "Tax structure and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 165-190, January.
    14. Iris Claus, 2006. "Taxation And Finance Constrained Firms," CAMA Working Papers 2006-20, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    15. Julie Berry Cullen & Roger Gordon, 2006. "Tax Reform and Entrepreneurial Activity," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 20, pages 41-72, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Adelino, Manuel & Schoar, Antoinette & Severino, Felipe, 2015. "House prices, collateral, and self-employment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 288-306.
    17. Hansson, Åsa, 2009. "Are small business owners more successful in avoiding taxes: Evidence from Sweden," Working Papers 2009:6, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    18. Orkhan Nadirov & Bruce Dehning, 2020. "Tax Progressivity and Entrepreneurial Dynamics," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(9), pages 1-21, April.
    19. Fossen, Frank M., 2012. "Risk attitudes and private business equity," Discussion Papers 2012/11, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    20. Andreas Haufler & Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson, 2011. "Entrepreneurial Innovations and Taxation," CESifo Working Paper Series 3473, CESifo.
    21. Cullen, Julie Berry & Gordon, Roger H., 2007. "Taxes and entrepreneurial risk-taking: Theory and evidence for the U.S," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(7-8), pages 1479-1505, August.
    22. Daniel V. Gordon & Jean-François Wen, 2018. "Tax penalties on fluctuating incomes: estimates from longitudinal data," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 25(2), pages 430-457, April.
    23. Åsa Hansson, 2012. "Tax policy and entrepreneurship: empirical evidence from Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 495-513, May.
    24. William Gale & Peter Orszag, 2005. "Economic Effects of Making the 2001 and 2003 Tax Cuts Permanent," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 12(2), pages 193-232, March.

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    JEL classification:

    • H0 - Public Economics - - General
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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