IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/f/pde1131.html
   My authors  Follow this author

Marco d'Errico

Personal Details

First Name:Marco
Middle Name:
Last Name:d'Errico
Suffix:
RePEc Short-ID:pde1131

Affiliation

(50%) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
United Nations

Roma, Italy
http://www.fao.org/

+39(6) 57051
+39(6) 57053152
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome
RePEc:edi:faoooit (more details at EDIRC)

(50%) Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche
Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna

Bologna, Italy
https://dse.unibo.it/

+39 051 209 8019 and 2600
+39 051 209 8040 and 2664
Piazza Scaravilli 2, 40125 Bologna
RePEc:edi:sebolit (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

as
Jump to: Working papers Articles

Working papers

  1. d’Errico, Marco & Ngesa, Oscar & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2020. "Assistance in chronic conflict areas: evidence from South Sudan," ESA Working Papers 302118, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
  2. Alan Roncoroni & Stefano Battiston & Marco D’Errico & Grzegorz Halaj & Christoffer Kok, 2019. "Interconnected Banks and Systemically Important Exposures," Staff Working Papers 19-44, Bank of Canada.
  3. Jones, Lindsey & D'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Whose resilience matters?: like-for-like comparisons of objective and subjective measures of resilience," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 101529, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  4. Koolwal, Gayatri & d’Errico, Marco & Sisto, Ilaria, 2019. "Paving the way to build the resilience of men and women. How to conduct a gender analysis of resilience," ESA Working Papers 288950, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
  5. Marco d'Errico & Marco Letta & Pierluigi Montalbano & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Resilience thresholds to temperature shocks in rural Tanzania: a long-run assessment," Working Papers 2/18, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
  6. d’Errico, Marco & Grazioli, Francesca & Mellin, Aurélien, 2017. "The 2012 crisis in Mali and its implications on resilience and food security," ESA Working Papers 288961, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
  7. d'Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca & Romano, Donato, 2016. "Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda," 2016 Fifth AIEAA Congress, June 16-17, 2016, Bologna, Italy 242328, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
  8. d’Errico, Marco & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2016. "A dynamic analysis of resilience in Uganda," ESA Working Papers 288971, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).
  9. Alfani, Federica & Azzarri, Carlo & d'Errico, Marco & Molini, Vasco, 2012. "Poverty in Mozambique : new evidence from recent household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6217, The World Bank.

Articles

  1. Brück, Tilman & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Food security and violent conflict: Introduction to the special issue," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 167-171.
  2. Brück, Tilman & d’Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: Evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 203-223.
  3. d'Errico, Marco & Letta, Marco & Montalbano, Pierluigi & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "Resilience Thresholds to Temperature Anomalies: A Long-run Test for Rural Tanzania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 1-1.
  4. Jones, Lindsey & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Whose resilience matters? Like-for-like comparison of objective and subjective evaluations of resilience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.
  5. d'Errico, Marco & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2018. "Resilience mobility in Uganda: A dynamic analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 78-96.
  6. Marco d'Errico & Francesca Grazioli & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Cross‐country Evidence of the Relationship Between Resilience and the Subjective Perception of Well‐being and Social Inclusion: Evidence from the Regions of Matam (Senegal) and the Triangle of Hope (M," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(8), pages 1339-1368, November.
  7. Marco d’Errico & Donato Romano & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 10(4), pages 1033-1054, August.
  8. Marco d’Errico & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2017. "Resilience and child malnutrition in Mali," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 9(2), pages 355-370, April.

Citations

Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, CitEc, where a more detailed citation analysis can be found. These are citations from works listed in RePEc that could be analyzed mechanically. So far, only a minority of all works could be analyzed. See under "Corrections" how you can help improve the citation analysis.

Working papers

  1. Alan Roncoroni & Stefano Battiston & Marco D’Errico & Grzegorz Halaj & Christoffer Kok, 2019. "Interconnected Banks and Systemically Important Exposures," Staff Working Papers 19-44, Bank of Canada.

    Cited by:

    1. Financial Stability Committee, Task Force on cross-border Spillover Effects of macroprudential measures & Kok, Christoffer & Reinhardt, Dennis, 2020. "Cross-border spillover effects of macroprudential policies: a conceptual framework," Occasional Paper Series 242, European Central Bank.
    2. C'elestin Coquid'e & Jos'e Lages & Dima L. Shepelyansky, 2020. "Crisis contagion in the world trade network," Papers 2002.07100, arXiv.org.

  2. Jones, Lindsey & D'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Whose resilience matters?: like-for-like comparisons of objective and subjective measures of resilience," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 101529, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.

    Cited by:

    1. Bekee, Barituka, 2020. "Does resilience capacity influence households' perception of control to environmental shocks? Evidence from the Bolivian Altiplano," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304545, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Perrin, Augustine & Cristobal, Magali San & Milestad, Rebecka & Martin, Guillaume, 2020. "Identification of resilience factors of organic dairy cattle farms," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 183(C).

  3. d'Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca & Romano, Donato, 2016. "Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda," 2016 Fifth AIEAA Congress, June 16-17, 2016, Bologna, Italy 242328, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).

    Cited by:

    1. Brück, Tilman & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Food security and violent conflict: Introduction to the special issue," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 167-171.
    2. Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah & Cornelis Gardebroek & Rico Ihle, 2019. "Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(6), pages 1187-1203, December.
    3. Knippenberg, Erwin & Jensen, Nathaniel & Constas, Mark, 2019. "Quantifying household resilience with high frequency data: Temporal dynamics and methodological options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 1-15.
    4. George AGWU, 2020. "The Boko Haram conflict and food insecurity: does resilience capacity matter?," Working Papers 2019-2020_4, CATT - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, revised Jul 2020.
    5. Elena Grimaccia & Alessia Naccarato, 2020. "Confirmatory factor analysis to validate a new measure of food insecurity: perceived and actual constructs," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1211-1232, August.
    6. Christophe Béné, 2020. "Resilience of local food systems and links to food security – A review of some important concepts in the context of COVID-19 and other shocks," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 12(4), pages 805-822, August.
    7. Chichaibelu, Bezawit Beyene & Garbero, Alessandra, 2018. "Estimating resilience outcomes in an impact assessment framework with high-frequency data," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274460, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    8. Murendo, Conrad & Kairezi, Grace & Mazvimavi, Kizito, 2020. "Resilience capacities and household nutrition in the presence of shocks. Evidence from Malawi," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    9. George Agwu, 2020. "The Boko Haram conflict and food insecurity: Does resilience capacity matter?," Working Papers hal-02902311, HAL.
    10. Mohamed Zied Dhraief & Boubaker Dhehibi & Hamed Daly Hassen & Meriem Zlaoui & Chaima Khatoui & Sondes Jemni & Ouessama Jebali & Mourad Rekik, 2019. "Livelihoods Strategies and Household Resilience to Food Insecurity: A Case Study from Rural Tunisia," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-17, February.

  4. d’Errico, Marco & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2016. "A dynamic analysis of resilience in Uganda," ESA Working Papers 288971, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).

    Cited by:

    1. Tilman Brück & Marco d’Errico & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: Evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict," HiCN Working Papers 269, Households in Conflict Network.
    2. Monserrath Ximena Lascano Galarza, 2020. "Resilience to Food Insecurity: Theory and Empirical Evidence from International Food Assistance in Malawi," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 71(3), pages 936-961, September.

  5. Alfani, Federica & Azzarri, Carlo & d'Errico, Marco & Molini, Vasco, 2012. "Poverty in Mozambique : new evidence from recent household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6217, The World Bank.

    Cited by:

    1. Fox, Louise & Sohnesen, Thomas Pave, 2013. "Household enterprises in Mozambique : key to poverty reduction but not on the development agenda ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6570, The World Bank.
    2. Shinkai, Naoko, 2016. "Examination of Poverty in Northern Mozambique: A Comparison of Social and Economic Dimensions," Working Papers 133, JICA Research Institute.
    3. Wouter Zant, 2017. "Impact of Mobile Phones on Staple Food Markets in Mozambique: Improved Arbitrage or Increased Rent Extraction?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 17-021/V, Tinbergen Institute, revised 26 Jan 2018.
    4. Wouter Zant, 2019. "Mobile Phones and Mozambique Traders: What is the Size of Reduced Search Costs and Who Benefits?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 19-047/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    5. Channing Arndt & M. Azhar Hussain & Vincenzo Salvucci & Finn Tarp & Lars Peter Østerdal, 2015. "Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-105, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Independent Evaluation Group, 2016. "Growing the Rural Nonfarm Economy to Alleviate Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 28971, November.
    7. Diksha Arora, 2014. "Gender Differences in Time Poverty in Rural Mozambique," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, University of Utah 2014_05, University of Utah, Department of Economics.
    8. Wouter Zant, 2018. "Mobile Phones and Mozambique Farmers: Less Asymmetric Information and More Trader Competition?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 18-055/V, Tinbergen Institute, revised 27 Oct 2019.
    9. Anselmi, Laura & Lagarde, Mylène & Hanson, Kara, 2015. "Going beyond horizontal equity: An analysis of health expenditure allocation across geographic areas in Mozambique," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 216-224.
    10. Channing Arndt & M. Azhar Hussain & Vincenzo Salvucci & Finn Tarp & Lars Peter Østerdal, 2013. "Advancing Small Area Estimation," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2013-053, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Channing Arndt & Sam Jones & Finn Tarp, 2015. "Mozambique: Off-track or Temporarily Sidelined?," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-044, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. van den Boom,Bart & Halsema,Alex & Molini,Vasco, 2015. "Are we confusing poverty with preferences ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7247, The World Bank.

Articles

  1. Brück, Tilman & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Food security and violent conflict: Introduction to the special issue," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 167-171.

    Cited by:

    1. Howe, Paul, 2019. "The triple nexus: A potential approach to supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.

  2. Brück, Tilman & d’Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: Evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 203-223.

    Cited by:

    1. John Chiwuzulum Odozi & Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere, 2019. "Conflict Exposure and Economic Welfare in Nigeria," HiCN Working Papers 314, Households in Conflict Network.
    2. Howe, Paul, 2019. "The triple nexus: A potential approach to supporting the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.
    3. Gigliarano,Chiara & Verme,Paolo, 2017. "Optimal targeting under budget constraints in a humanitarian context," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8191, The World Bank.
    4. Mercier, Marion & Ngenzebuke, Rama Lionel & Verwimp, Philip, 2020. "Violence exposure and poverty: Evidence from the Burundi civil war," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 822-840.
    5. Knippenberg, Erwin & Jensen, Nathaniel & Constas, Mark, 2019. "Quantifying household resilience with high frequency data: Temporal dynamics and methodological options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 1-15.
    6. George AGWU, 2020. "The Boko Haram conflict and food insecurity: does resilience capacity matter?," Working Papers 2019-2020_4, CATT - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, revised Jul 2020.
    7. Ziv Bar-Nahum & Israel Finkelshtain & Rico Ihle & Ofir D. Rubin, 2020. "Effects of violent political conflict on the supply, demand and fragmentation of fresh food markets," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 12(3), pages 503-515, June.
    8. George Agwu, 2020. "The Boko Haram conflict and food insecurity: Does resilience capacity matter?," Working Papers hal-02902311, HAL.

  3. Jones, Lindsey & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Whose resilience matters? Like-for-like comparison of objective and subjective evaluations of resilience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.

    Cited by:

    1. Bekee, Barituka, 2020. "Does resilience capacity influence households' perception of control to environmental shocks? Evidence from the Bolivian Altiplano," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304545, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Perrin, Augustine & Cristobal, Magali San & Milestad, Rebecka & Martin, Guillaume, 2020. "Identification of resilience factors of organic dairy cattle farms," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 183(C).
    3. Murendo, Conrad & Kairezi, Grace & Mazvimavi, Kizito, 2020. "Resilience capacities and household nutrition in the presence of shocks. Evidence from Malawi," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).

  4. d'Errico, Marco & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2018. "Resilience mobility in Uganda: A dynamic analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 78-96.

    Cited by:

    1. Busby, Joshua & Smith, Todd G. & Krishnan, Nisha & Wight, Charles & Vallejo-Gutierrez, Santiago, 2018. "In harm's way: Climate security vulnerability in Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 88-118.
    2. Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah & Cornelis Gardebroek & Rico Ihle, 2019. "Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(6), pages 1187-1203, December.
    3. Knippenberg, Erwin & Jensen, Nathaniel & Constas, Mark, 2019. "Quantifying household resilience with high frequency data: Temporal dynamics and methodological options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 1-15.
    4. Marco d'Errico & Marco Letta & Pierluigi Montalbano & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Resilience thresholds to temperature shocks in rural Tanzania: a long-run assessment," Working Papers 2/18, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
    5. Murendo, Conrad & Kairezi, Grace & Mazvimavi, Kizito, 2020. "Resilience capacities and household nutrition in the presence of shocks. Evidence from Malawi," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    6. d'Errico, Marco & Letta, Marco & Montalbano, Pierluigi & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "Resilience Thresholds to Temperature Anomalies: A Long-run Test for Rural Tanzania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 1-1.

  5. Marco d'Errico & Francesca Grazioli & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Cross‐country Evidence of the Relationship Between Resilience and the Subjective Perception of Well‐being and Social Inclusion: Evidence from the Regions of Matam (Senegal) and the Triangle of Hope (M," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(8), pages 1339-1368, November.

    Cited by:

    1. Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah & Cornelis Gardebroek & Rico Ihle, 2019. "Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(6), pages 1187-1203, December.
    2. Knippenberg, Erwin & Jensen, Nathaniel & Constas, Mark, 2019. "Quantifying household resilience with high frequency data: Temporal dynamics and methodological options," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 1-15.

  6. Marco d’Errico & Donato Romano & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 10(4), pages 1033-1054, August.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  7. Marco d’Errico & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2017. "Resilience and child malnutrition in Mali," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 9(2), pages 355-370, April.

    Cited by:

    1. Brück, Tilman & d'Errico, Marco, 2019. "Food security and violent conflict: Introduction to the special issue," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 167-171.
    2. Cissé, Jennifer Denno & Barrett, Christopher B., 2018. "Estimating development resilience: A conditional moments-based approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 272-284.
    3. d'Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca & Romano, Donato, 2016. "Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda," 90th Annual Conference, April 4-6, 2016, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 236350, Agricultural Economics Society.
    4. Isaac Gershon Kodwo Ansah & Cornelis Gardebroek & Rico Ihle, 2019. "Resilience and household food security: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and empirical evidence," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 11(6), pages 1187-1203, December.
    5. Tilman Brück & Marco d’Errico & Rebecca Pietrelli, 2018. "The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: Evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict," HiCN Working Papers 269, Households in Conflict Network.
    6. Christophe Béné, 2020. "Resilience of local food systems and links to food security – A review of some important concepts in the context of COVID-19 and other shocks," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 12(4), pages 805-822, August.
    7. Murendo, Conrad & Kairezi, Grace & Mazvimavi, Kizito, 2020. "Resilience capacities and household nutrition in the presence of shocks. Evidence from Malawi," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    8. d'Errico, Marco & Letta, Marco & Montalbano, Pierluigi & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "Resilience Thresholds to Temperature Anomalies: A Long-run Test for Rural Tanzania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 1-1.
    9. Brück, Tilman & d’Errico, Marco & Pietrelli, Rebecca, 2019. "The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: Evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 203-223.
    10. Kathryn Grace & Ran Wei & Alan T. Murray, 2017. "A spatial analytic framework for assessing and improving food aid distribution in developing countries," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 9(4), pages 867-880, August.

More information

Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available.

Statistics

Access and download statistics for all items

Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 7 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-DEV: Development (6) 2012-10-13 2016-06-18 2016-08-14 2018-05-14 2019-06-17 2020-03-02. Author is listed
  2. NEP-AGR: Agricultural Economics (3) 2016-06-18 2016-08-14 2018-05-14. Author is listed
  3. NEP-AFR: Africa (1) 2012-10-13
  4. NEP-BAN: Banking (1) 2019-12-02
  5. NEP-CBA: Central Banking (1) 2019-12-02
  6. NEP-EEC: European Economics (1) 2019-12-02
  7. NEP-ENV: Environmental Economics (1) 2018-05-14

Corrections

All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions.

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Marco d'Errico should log into the RePEc Author Service.

To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. Note that if the versions have a very similar title and are in the author's profile, the links will usually be created automatically.

Please note that most corrections can take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.