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Innovationseffizienz in den EU-Ländern. Eine Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

Author

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  • Agnes Kügler
  • Jürgen Janger

Abstract

Innovationsaktivitäten sind ein zentrales Element für Strategien zur Steigerung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und zur Bewältigung von Herausforderungen wie dem Klimawandel. Die Umsetzung solcher Innovationsstrategien wird in vielen Ländern allerdings durch die Knappheit öffentlicher Mittel im Gefolge der Wirtschaftskrise erschwert. Daher ist ein effizienter Einsatz der knappen Ressourcen im FTI-Bereich entscheidend und das Interesse an adäquaten Methoden zur Effizienzmessung im Ländervergleich entsprechend groß. Die vorliegende Studie nimmt einen systematischen Leistungsvergleich der Länder der EU 28 mittels einer Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) vor. Österreich könnte demnach durch einen effizienteren Einsatz der verfügbaren Mittel eine Steigerung des Innovationsoutputs zwischen 52% und 67% (Basis IUS, variable Skalenerträge) bzw. zwischen 12% und 28% (Basis WIFO-Berechnung, variable Skalenerträge) ohne entsprechende Steigerung der Inputs erreichen. Die innovationsstärksten Länder (Innovation Leaders) sind nicht immer auch die effizientesten, wie das Beispiel Schwedens oder Finnlands zeigt, deren Effizienz ebenso noch Verbesserungspotential aufweist. Allerdings sollte die Wahl der einbezogenen Input- und Innovationsoutputindikatoren wohlüberlegt sein, da sie erheblichen Einfluss auf die Ergebnisse der Analyse hat. Daneben birgt die DEA weitere Nachteile (z. B. systemische Innovationsprozessstruktur wird nicht berücksichtigt), die bei der Interpretation der Ergebnisse beachtet werden sollten.

Suggested Citation

  • Agnes Kügler & Jürgen Janger, 2015. "Innovationseffizienz in den EU-Ländern. Eine Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 58202.
  • Handle: RePEc:wfo:wstudy:58202
    Note: With English abstract.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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