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Bei welchen Problemstrukturen sind Data-Envelopment-Analysen sinnvoll? Eine kritische Würdigung

  • Musshoff, Oliver
  • Hirschauer, Norbert
  • Herink, Michael

Die Effizienzanalyse mit Hilfe der Data-Envelopment-Analyse (DEA) stellt ein weit verbreitetes Verfahren zur vergleichenden Einschätzung der empirischen Performanz von Entscheidungseinheiten (z.B. Unternehmen) dar. Angesichts „boomender“ Anwendungen auf eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Fragestellungen zeigt dieser Beitrag, bei welchen Daten und Problemstrukturen die DEA eine adäquate Methode der Wissensgewinnung darstellt. Ein sinnvolles Einsatzgebiet ergibt sich dann, wenn in den Datensätzen der betrachteten Ent-scheidungseinheiten für mehrere Inputs und/oder Outputs keine Preise vorliegen. Gleiches gilt, wenn man den in den Datensätzen ausgewiesenen Preisen nicht „zutraut“, ökonomische Knappheit adäquat widerzuspiegeln. In allen anderen Fällen generiert die DEA für sich genommen weniger Wissen bezüglich der ökonomischen Performanz als Kriterien, die sowohl den Ressourcenverbrauch (Inputs) als auch die Leistungserstellung (Outputs) in einer Dimension, d.h. monetär messen. Im Rahmen einer Verfahrenskombination kann die DEA aber auch bei Vorliegen von Preisen sinnvoll sein. Dies ist dann der Fall, wenn sie zur Dekomposition festgestellter ökonomischer Performanzschwächen genutzt wird, die Rückschlüsse erlaubt, ob die Schwächen eher in einer mangelhaften Beherrschung technologischer Prozesse oder in einer unzulänglichen Anpassung an die Preise auf den Faktor- und Produktmärkten (Fehlallokation) liegen. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is widely used to compare the empirical performance of decision making units such as firms or public bodies. With a view to the recent boom of applications to a very wide range of different problems, this paper shows for which data and problem structures DEA represents an appropriate analytical tool for generating knowledge. The paper stresses the point that an efficiency analysis such as DEA which does not use prices to weigh different inputs and outputs is, first of all, adequate if several input and/or output prices are unknown or if they cannot be “trusted†to reveal the relative scarcity of resources and goods. In all other circumstances, stand-alone DEA generates less knowledge than standard approaches which resort to classical economic performance criteria that measure the resources used (inputs) and the goods and services produced (outputs) in monetary units. If prices are known, DEA is only useful if it is used as an additional tool to decompose economic performance weaknesses into a technical component (mismanagement of technological processes) and allocative components (maladjustments to prices on the factor and product markets).

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Article provided by Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics in its journal German Journal of Agricultural Economics.

Volume (Year): 58 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:ags:gjagec:134175
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