IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

The existence of gender-specific promotion standards in the U.S

  • Kathy A. Paulson Gjerde

    (College of Business Administration, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208-3485, USA)

Registered author(s):

    This paper is motivated by the claim that promotion probabilities are lower for women than men. Using data from the 1984 and 1989 National Longitudinal Youth Surveys, this paper tests this claim and two related hypotheses concerning training and ability. It is found that females are less likely to be promoted than males, and females receive less training than males. The relationship between promotion and gender varies across occupations, however, suggesting that the alleged glass ceiling faced by women and other minorities in the workplace is not uniform across all labor markets. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    File Function: Link to full text; subscription required
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Managerial and Decision Economics.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 8 ()
    Pages: 447-459

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:wly:mgtdec:v:23:y:2002:i:8:p:447-459
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Kathy Cannings, 1988. "Managerial promotion: The effects of socialization, specialization, and gender," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 77-88, October.
    2. Peter F. Orazem & J. Peter Mattila & Ruoh Chiann Yu, 1990. "An Index Number Approach to the Measurement of Wage Differentials by Sex," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(1), pages 125-136.
    3. Kathy J. Hayes & Donna K. Ginther, 1999. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in the Humanities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 397-402, May.
    4. Ariga, Kenn & Brunello, Giorgio & Ohkusa, Yasushi, 1997. "Fast Track: Is it in the Genes? The Promotion Policy of a Large Japanese Firm," CEPR Discussion Papers 1622, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Robert Kaestner, 1994. "Some Empirical Evidence on the Use of Gender Specific Promotion Rules," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 201-218, Spring.
    6. Sharon P. Smith, 1976. "Pay differential between federal government and private sector workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(2), pages 179-197, January.
    7. Joseph Gyourko & Joseph Tracy, 1986. "An Analysis of Public and Private Sector Wages Allowing for Endogenous Choices of Both Government and Union Status," NBER Working Papers 1920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Elaine Sorensen, 1989. "Measuring the pay disparity between typically female occupations and other jobs: A bivariate selectivity approach," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(4), pages 624-639, July.
    9. Gronau, Reuben, 1973. "The Intrafamily Allocation of Time: The Value of the Housewives' Time," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 634-51, September.
    10. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
    11. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    12. Larry D. Singell & John M. McDowell & James P. Ziliak, 1999. "Cracks in the Glass Ceiling: Gender and Promotion in the Economics Profession," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 392-396, May.
    13. Krowas, John C., 1993. "Time-dependent changes in gender-based promotion differences," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 87-90.
    14. Jones, David R & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1996. "Equal Worth, Equal Opportunities: Pay and Promotion in an Internal Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 401-09, March.
    15. Lindsay, Cotton M & Maloney, Michael T, 1988. "A Model and Some Evidence Concerning the Influence of Discrimination on Wages," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 645-60, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:mgtdec:v:23:y:2002:i:8:p:447-459. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)

    or (Christopher F. Baum)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.