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Assessing evidence of environmental inequities: A meta-analysis


  • Evan J. Ringquist

    (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN)


Over the past decade activists, academics, and policymakers have devoted a great deal of attention to “environmental equity,” or the notion that sources of potential environmental risk may be concentrated among racial and ethnic minorities and the poor. Despite these efforts, the existence and extent of environmental inequities is still the subject of intense scholarly debate. This manuscript reports the results from a meta-analysis of 49 environmental equity studies. The analysis demonstrates that while there is ubiquitous evidence of environmental inequities based upon race, existing research does not support the contention that similar inequities exist with respect to economic class. © 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management

Suggested Citation

  • Evan J. Ringquist, 2005. "Assessing evidence of environmental inequities: A meta-analysis," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(2), pages 223-247.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:24:y:2005:i:2:p:223-247
    DOI: 10.1002/pam.20088

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. T.D. Stanley & Stephen B. Jarrell, 1998. "Gender Wage Discrimination Bias? A Meta-Regression Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(4), pages 947-973.
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    Cited by:

    1. Douglas S. Noonan, 2008. "Evidence of Environmental Justice: A Critical Perspective on the Practice of EJ Research and Lessons for Policy Design," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1153-1174.
    2. Dorothy M. Daley, 2007. "Citizen groups and scientific decisionmaking: Does public participation influence environmental outcomes?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 349-368.
    3. Yushim Kim & Heather Campbell & Adam Eckerd, 2014. "Residential Choice Constraints and Environmental Justice," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 95(1), pages 40-56, March.
    4. Heather E. Campbell & Laura R. Peck & Michael K. Tschudi, 2010. "Justice for All? A Cross-Time Analysis of Toxics Release Inventory Facility Location," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 27(1), pages 1-25, January.
    5. Parry, Ian & Walls, Margaret & Sigman, Hilary & Williams III, Roberton, 2005. "The Incidence of Pollution Control Policies," Discussion Papers dp-05-24, Resources For the Future.
    6. Yushim Kim & Stefan Verweij, 2016. "Two effective causal paths that explain the adoption of US state environmental justice policy," Policy Sciences, Springer;Society of Policy Sciences, vol. 49(4), pages 505-523, December.
    7. repec:kap:jbuset:v:145:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s10551-015-2836-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Geoffrey Heal & Bengt Kriström, 2014. "Distribution, sustainability and environmental policy," Chapters,in: Handbook of Sustainable Development, chapter 11, pages 175-187 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Baryshnikova, Nadezhda V., 2010. "Pollution abatement and environmental equity: A dynamic study," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 183-190, September.
    10. Adam Eckerd & Andrew Keeler, 2012. "Going green together? Brownfield remediation and environmental justice," Policy Sciences, Springer;Society of Policy Sciences, vol. 45(4), pages 293-314, December.
    11. Troy D. Abel & Jonah White & Stacy Clauson, 2015. "Risky Business: Sustainability and Industrial Land Use across Seattle’s Gentrifying Riskscape," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(11), pages 1-36, November.
    12. Vajjhala, Shalini & Van Epps, Amanda & Szambelan, Sarah, 2008. "Integrating EJ into Federal Policies and Programs: Examining the Role of Regulatory Impact Analyses and Environmental Impact Statements," Discussion Papers dp-08-45, Resources For the Future.
    13. James Boyce & Manuel Pastor, 2012. "Cooling the Planet, Clearing the Air: Climate Policy, Carbon Pricing, and Co-Benefits," Published Studies cooling_the_planet_sept20, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    14. James Boyce & Manuel Pastor, 2013. "Clearing the air: incorporating air quality and environmental justice into climate policy," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 120(4), pages 801-814, October.
    15. Cory, Dennis C. & Rahman, Tauhidur, 2009. "Environmental justice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The Arizona arsenic experience," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(6), pages 1825-1837, April.

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