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Predicting mergers and acquisitions in the food industry


  • Adesoji Adelaja

    (Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics, Cook College, Rutgers University, 55 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901)

  • Rodolfo Nayga

    (Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, 334 Blocker Building, College Station, TX 77843-2124)

  • Zafar Farooq

    (Copelco Capital, Inc., One International Boulevard, Mahwah, NJ 07430)


Two logit models are estimated to explain merger and acquisition (M&A) activities in US food manufacturing using firm level data for public firms: a “target model” predicting the likelihood of a firm being targeted for M&A and a “takeover model” predicting the likelihood of a targeted firm being taken over. Target model results suggest the importance of firm liquidity, debt|leverage, profitability, growth in sales, stock earnings capacity, percentage of common stocks traded in the stock market, and market-to-book ratio. Activity or turnover ratio, firm size, and price-earnings ratio were not statistically significant. Takeover model results suggest the importance of degree of officer control, attitude surrounding the transaction, number of prior bids, existence of litigation during negotiations, and involvement of the bidder and|or target in other takeovers during negotiations. With predictive accuracy of 74.5 and 62.9%, respectively, these models suggest the systematic nature of M&A activities. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Citation

  • Adesoji Adelaja & Rodolfo Nayga & Zafar Farooq, 1999. "Predicting mergers and acquisitions in the food industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(1), pages 1-23.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:15:y:1999:i:1:p:1-23
    DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6297(199924)15:1<1::AID-AGR1>3.0.CO;2-N

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Langetieg, Terence C., 1978. "An application of a three-factor performance index to measure stockholder gains from merger," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 365-383, December.
    2. Stevens, Donald L., 1973. "Financial Characteristics of Merged Firms: A Multivariate Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 149-158, March.
    3. Dodd, Peter & Ruback, Richard, 1977. "Tender offers and stockholder returns : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 351-373, December.
    4. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
    5. Bruce W. Marion & Donghwan Kim, 1991. "Concentration change in selected food manufacturing industries: The influence of mergers vs. internal growth," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(5), pages 415-431.
    6. repec:bla:joares:v:12:y:1974:i:2:p:270-287 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Palepu, Krishna G., 1986. "Predicting takeover targets : A methodological and empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-35, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hudson, Darren & Herndon, Cary W., Jr., 2000. "Mergers, Acquisitions, Joint Ventures, And Strategic Alliances In Agricultural Cooperatives," Research reports 15799, Mississippi State University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    2. Oliver Ebneth & Ludwig Theuvsen, 2007. "Large mergers and acquisitions of European brewing groups-event study evidence on value creation," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 377-406.
    3. Declerck, Francis, 2016. "Mergers & Acquisitions in the Food Business: How did the 2002 and 2008/2009 Economic Crises Impact Corporate Valuation?," International Journal on Food System Dynamics, International Center for Management, Communication, and Research, vol. 7(3).
    4. Theofanis Papageorgiou & Panayotis G. Michaelides & John G. Milios, 2011. "Technology and economic fluctuations in the US food sector (1958-2006): An empirical approach from a political economy perspective," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 140-164, January.
    5. Dirk van der Krogt & Jerker Nilsson & Viggo Høst, 2007. "The impact of cooperatives' risk aversion and equity capital constraints on their inter-firm consolidation and collaboration strategies-with an empirical study of the European dairy industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(4), pages 453-472.
    6. Neumann, Gyde & Weiss, Christoph R., 2001. "Strukturwandel durch Fusionen im Ernährungssektor: Ein anhaltender Konzentrationsprozess?," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 50(6).
    7. Kim, C.S. & Hallahan, Charles B. & Schaible, Glenn D. & Leath, Mack N., 2000. "A Decomposed Regression Model For Measuring Structural Changes In The Flour Milling Industry," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21834, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    8. Richards, Timothy J. & Manfredo, Mark R., 2003. "Cooperative Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Capital Constraints," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(01), April.
    9. Papageorgiou, Theofanis & Michaelides, Panayotis G. & Milios, John, 2009. "Economic Fluctuations, Cyclical Regularities and Technological Change: The U.S. Food Sector (1958–2006)," MPRA Paper 67115, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Muehlfeld, Katrin & Weitzel, Utz & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen, 2011. "Mergers and acquisitions in the global food processing industry in 1986-2006," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 466-479, August.
    11. C.S. Kim & C. Hallahan & G. Schaible & G. Schluter, 2001. "Economic analysis of the changing structure of the U.S. flour milling industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 161-171.

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