IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The impact of cooperatives' risk aversion and equity capital constraints on their inter-firm consolidation and collaboration strategies-with an empirical study of the European dairy industry

Listed author(s):
  • Dirk van der Krogt

    (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden)

  • Jerker Nilsson

    (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden)

  • Viggo Høst

    (School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark)

Registered author(s):

    This article concludes that cooperative firms' choice of interfirm consolidation and collaboration strategies can be explained by two attributes, inherent in the cooperative business form, namely, risk aversion and equity capital constraints. Empirical data originate from the 15 largest EU dairy firms during a 5-year period (1998-2002). In total 198 activities are identified. They are classified into six categories: (a) mergers, (b) acquisitions, (c) strategic share holdings, (d) joint ventures, (e) licensing, and (f) general collaboration agreements. It is shown that cooperative firms prefer mergers, collaboration agreements, joint ventures, and licensing. All of these are relatively low in terms of both performance risks and relational risks, and they demand limited amounts of equity capital. Investor-owned firms focus on take-over strategies-acquisitions and share holdings. Other indicators of risk aversion are that cooperatives tend to collaborate with other cooperatives and that they prefer partners in their own home market. [EconLit: Q130; P130; L200.] © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Agribusiness 23: 453-472, 2007.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    File Function: Link to full text; subscription required
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Agribusiness.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 453-472

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:23:y:2007:i:4:p:453-472
    DOI: 10.1002/agr.20140
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Royer, Jeffrey S., 1999. "Cooperative Organizational Strategies: A Neo-Institutional Digest," Journal of Cooperatives, NCERA-210, vol. 14.
    2. George W. J. Hendrikse, 1998. "Screening, Competition and the Choice of the Cooperative as an Organisational Form," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(2), pages 202-217.
    3. Adesoji Adelaja & Rodolfo Nayga & Zafar Farooq, 1999. "Predicting mergers and acquisitions in the food industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(1), pages 1-23.
    4. Alfred D. Chandler, 1969. "Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262530090, July.
    5. Darren Hudson & Cary W. Herndon, 2002. "Factors influencing probability and frequency of participation in merger and partnership activity in agricultural cooperatives," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(2), pages 231-246.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:23:y:2007:i:4:p:453-472. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)

    or (Christopher F. Baum)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.