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Cooperative Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Capital Constraints

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  • Richards, Timothy J.
  • Manfredo, Mark R.

Abstract

Several explanations for merger activity exist for publicly traded firms, but none consider the unique aspects of cooperatives. This study develops a test for the hypothesis that cooperative consolidation occurs primarily in response to capital constraints associated with a lack of access to external equity capital. An empirical model estimates the shadow value of long-term investment capital within a multinomial logit model of transaction choice in a panel data set of the 100 largest U.S. cooperatives. The results substantially confirm the capital-constraint hypothesis. Thus, the primary implication is that internal growth may be a more viable alternative to consolidation if new forms of cooperative financing are developed.

Suggested Citation

  • Richards, Timothy J. & Manfredo, Mark R., 2003. "Cooperative Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Capital Constraints," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(01), April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:jlaare:30718
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Devra L. Golbe & Lawrence J. White, 1988. "A Time-Series Analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions in the U.S. Economy," NBER Chapters,in: Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences, pages 265-310 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    3. Hans Schenk, 1996. "Bandwagon mergers, international competitiveness, and government policy," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 23(3), pages 255-278, October.
    4. Scherer, F M, 1988. "Corporate Takeovers: The Efficiency Arguments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 69-82, Winter.
    5. Ramon E. Lopez, 1984. "Estimating Substitution and Expansion Effects Using a Profit Function Framework," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 66(3), pages 358-367.
    6. Scott, John T., 1989. "Purposive diversification as a motive for merger," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 35-47, March.
    7. Lewellen, Wilbur G, 1971. "A Pure Financial Rationale for the Conglomerate Merger," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 521-537, May.
    8. Resende, Marcelo, 1999. " Wave Behaviour of Mergers and Acquisitions in the UK: A Sectoral Study," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(1), pages 85-94, February.
    9. Adesoji Adelaja & Rodolfo Nayga & Zafar Farooq, 1999. "Predicting mergers and acquisitions in the food industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(1), pages 1-23.
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    Cited by:

    1. Juan Juliá-Igual & Elena Meliá-Martí & Gabriel García-Martinez, 2012. "Strategies developed by leading EU agrifood cooperatives in their growth models," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, vol. 6(1), pages 27-46, March.
    2. Manfredo, Mark R. & Richards, Timothy J. & McDermott, Scott, 2003. "Agricultural Cooperatives And Risk Management:Impact On Financial Performance," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22217, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Grashuis, Jasper & Cook, Michael, 2016. "Governance and Performance in the U.S. Agri-Food Industry: A Comparative Study of Firms and Cooperatives," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235676, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Grashuis, Jasper & Cook, Michael, 2016. "Capital, Ownership, and Governance: Analyzing the Structure of U.S. Farmer Cooperatives," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235677, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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