Contrasting Conventional with Multi-Level Modeling Approaches to Meta-Analysis: Expectation Consistency in U.K. Woodland Recreation Values
The paper presents a variety ofmeta analysis models of woodland recreation benefit estimates, contrasting conventionally estimatedmodelswith those provided by novel, multi-level modeling (MLM) techniques (Goldstein 1995). Our conventional models suggest that studies carried out by certain authors are associated with unusually large residuals within ourmeta-analysis.However, the MLM approach explicitly incorporates the hierarchical nature ofmeta-analysis data, with estimates nested within study sites and authors. These residuals are not a significant determinant upon values, suggesting that, at least in this aspect, estimates may be more robust than indicated by less sophisticated models.
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