A meta-analysis of forest recreation values in Europe
This paper presents a meta-analysis of forest recreation in Europe based on studies that have applied the travel cost method covering 25 studies in 9 countries since 1979. We conduct the meta-regression with an increasing number of variables where level I includes only data available from the studies, level II aggregate socio-economic variables and level III site specific characteristics such as diversity, fraction of open land, and location. Data shows that consumer surplus varies between USD0.72 per trip to USD122 with a median of USD4.90 per trip. Results of the model with the best overall summary indicate that forest recreation benefits are positively influenced by an increasing level of costs per kilometre, opportunity cost of time and average distance travelled. Also large and popular forests, monotone vegetation and diverse age classes influence benefits positively. GDP, however, appear to have a negative impact on benefits and population density does not contribute significantly to predicting recreation welfare.
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Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1-2 (January)
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