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Regional Employment Evolutions in the European Union: A Preliminary Analysis

Listed author(s):
  • Ron Martin
  • Peter Tyler

MARTIN R. and TYLER P.(2000) Regional employment evolutions in the European Union: a preliminary analysis, Reg. Studies 34, 601-616. In recent years there has been considerable interest by academics and policy makers in comparing the employment performance of the European Union with that of the US. In comparison to Europe, the US economy has generated jobs at a dramatically higher rate. However,what is perhaps not as obvious is that there have been significant regional variations in employment growth across the US. Regions which have been fast job creators have tended to stay that way through time and vice-versa for regions with relatively slower growth rates. Moreover, in response to economic shocks the relative regional pattern of employment evolution tends to reassert itself. The regional experience of the US takes on added significance in the context of the progressive movement towards economic and monetary integration which has been underway in the EU since the early 1980s and a central question is whether the US experience provides a guide to the pattern of regional employment change which is emerging across Europe. In particular, will regional employment evolutions become increasingly divergent as Magnifico argued over 25 years ago? In practice little is known about what the pattern of regional evolutions has been across the Member States of the EU and this paper seeks to identify, in a preliminary way, some of the major regional differences which have existed. MARTIN R. et TYLER P.(2000) L'évolution de l'emploi en Europe: une première analyse, Reg. Studies 34, 601-616. Au cours des dernières années les universitaires et les décideurs se sont beaucoup intéressés àcomparer l'évolution de l'emploi dans l'Union européenne àcelle aux Etats-Unis. Par rapport àl'Europe, la création d'emplois aux Etats-Unis s'est avérée nettement plus importante. Toujours est-il que des variations régionales des taux de croissance de l'emploi sont ànoter aussi àtravers les Etats-Unis. Les régions les plus créatrices d'emplois le sont toujours, et vice versa pour ce qui est des régions dont le taux de croissance de l'emploi s'avère relativement moins rapide. Qui plus est, suite aux chocs économiques, la distribution régionale relative de l'évolution de l'emploi a tendancèas'imposer de nouveau. L'expérience régionale aux Etats-Unis se revêt d'une importance supplémentaire dans le cadre du processus de tâtonnement vers l'intégration économique et monétaire qui est en cours de construction depuis le début des années 80, et une question primordiale qui se pose est la suivante: l'expérience américaine, est-ce qu'elle fournit un modèle type de la distribution de l'évolution de l'emploi régional qui voit le jour àtravers l'Europe? En particulier, l'évolution de l'emploi régional va-t-elle se creuser, comme le soutient Magnifico il y a vingt-cinq années? En réalité, on ne sait pas grande chose de la distribution de l'évolution régionale à travers les pays membres de l'Ue, et cet article cherche àfaire une première estimation des principales différences régionales. MARTIN R. und TYLER P.(2000) Regionale Entwicklungen im Erwerbsleben Europas: eine vorläufige Analyse, Reg Studies 34, 601-616. In den letzten Jahren bestand bei Akademikern und Parteiideologen beträchtliches Interesse an Vergleichen der Arbeitsleistung der Europäischen Union mit derjenigen der VereinigtenStaaten. Im Vergleichmit Europa hat die Wirtschaft der USA eine weitaus höhere Rate der Arbeitsplatzschaffung aufzuweisen. Es ist jedoch nicht unbedingt ebenso offensichtlich, daß in den Vereinigten Staaten allgemein bedeutende regionale Unterschiede in der Zunahme von Erwerbsstellen gibt. Regionen, die schnell Arbeitsplätze beschafften, haben meist auf dieser Tradition aufgebaut und sie fortgesetzt, während das gleiche umgekehrt auf Regionen mit relativ langsamen Wachstumsraten zutrifft. In Erwiderung auf wirtschaftliche Schocks macht sich zudem das relative regionale Muster der Arbeitsplatzbeschaffung erneut geltend. Im Zusammenhang mit der fortschreitenden Bewegung in Richtung Integration von Wirtschaft und Währung, die in der europäischen Union Anfang der achtziger Jahre einsetzte, nimmt die regionale Prägung der Erfahrungen in den USA zusätzlich an Bedeutung zu, und es erhebt sich die Frage, ob die Erfahrungen der USA ein Wegweiser für das Muster des Wandels regionaler Erwerbstätigkeit darstellen, das in ganz Europa im Entstehen begriffen ist. Vorallem: werden regionale Entwicklungen im Erwerbswesen weiter auseinanderklaffen, wie Magnifico vor mehr als 25 Jahren behauptete? In der Praxis ist wenig über den Verlauf des Musters regionaler Entwicklung in den verschiedenen Mitgliedstaaten der EU bekannt, und dieser Aufsatz sucht, vorläufig einige regionale Hauptunterschiede aufzuzeigen, die bestanden haben.

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 34 (2000)
Issue (Month): 7 (October)
Pages: 601-616

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:34:y:2000:i:7:p:601-616
DOI: 10.1080/00343400050178410
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  1. Decressin, Jorg & Fatas, Antonio, 1995. "Regional labor market dynamics in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1627-1655, December.
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  8. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
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