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Disparities in Employment, Productivity and Output in the EU: The Roles of Labour Market Governance and Welfare Regimes


  • Michael Dunford


DUNFORD M. (1996) Disparities in employment, productivity and output in the EU: the roles of labour market governance and welfare regimes, Reg. Studies 30, 339-357. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of empirical and theoretical connections between geographies of inequality on the one hand and geographies of productivity and of the mobilization of human potential on the other. To this end it presents a brief account of the current map of regional inequality in the EU. Disparities in Gross Domestic Product per head are shown to depend on two elements: differences in productivity and differences in the employment rate which, it is argued, reflects the capacity of an area to mobilize its human potential. An analysis of data for NUTS 1 regions in the EU and for neighbouring countries shows that the respective roles of productivity and employment rate differentials in explaining variations in output per head vary quite markedly from one region to another. To interpret these empirical results it is argued, first, that geographies of output, productivity and employment can in part by explained by differences in the regulatory orders that prevail in different countries and regions and, second, that conceptions of regional performance must be widened to consider not just the dynamics of the productive order but also the structure and organization of the market for labour and its articulation with the system of social reproduction. DUNFORD M. (1996) Ecarts d'emploi, de productivite et de production au sein de l'U E: le role de la regulation du marche du travail et des systemes de protection sociale, Reg. Studies 30, 339-357. Cet article cherche a developper un ensemble de rapports empiriques et theoriques entre d'un cote les geographies de l'inegalite et de l'autre cote les geographies de la productivite et de la mobilisation des ressources humaines. A cette fin il presente un compte-rendu bref-de la carte actuelle de l'inegalite regionale au sein de l'U E. Il est demontre que les ecarts de Produit Interieur Brut dependent de deux facteurs: a savoir, les ecarts de productivite et les ecarts des taux d'emploi qui, on laisse supposer, refletent la capacite d'une zone a mobiliser ses ressources humaines. Une analyse des donnees relatives aux regions N U T S 1 de l'U E et aux pays limitrophes, montrent que les roles respectifs des ecarts de productivite et des taux d'emploi dans une explication des variations de la production par tete, varient de facon non-negligeable d'une region a une autre. Afin d'interpreter ces resultats empiriques, on argumente, primo, que les geographies de la production, de la productivite et de l'emploi s'expliquent en partie par les differences des modes de regulation en vigueur dans des pays et des regions differents, et, secundo, les conceptions de la performance regionale diovent etre elargies pour tenir compte non seulement des dynamiques de l'ordre productif mais aussi de la structure et de l'organisation du marche du travail et de son expression a l'interieur du systeme de reproduction sociale. DUNFORD M. (1996) Unterschiede in Erwerbstatigkeit, Produktivitat und Produktion in der E U: die Rollen der Arbeitsmarktbestimmungen und des Wohlfahrtssystems, Reg. Studies 30, 339-357. Es ist das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes, einerseits eine Reihe empirischer und theoretischer Verbindungen zwischen geographischer Verteilung von Ungleichheiten und andrerseits zwischen geographisch erfassbaren Strukturen der Produktivitat und Mobilisierung menschlichen Potentials herzustellen. Zu diesem Zwecke wird eine kurze Aufstellung der derzeitigen regionalen Ungleichheit in der E U gegeben. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass Unterschiede der im Inland pro Kopf erreichten Bruttoproduktion von zwei Elementen abhangt: den Unterschieden in der Produktivitat und Unterschieden in der Erwerbstatigkeitsrate, wobei der Standpunkt vertreten wird, dass letzere die Fahigkeit eines Gebietes widerspiegelt, sein menschliches Potential zu mobilisieren. Eine Analyse von Daten fur NUTS 1 Regionen in der EU und fur ihre Nachbarlander zeigt, daUsZ die respektiven Rollen von Produktivitat und Erwerbstatigkeitsratendifferentialen bei der Erklarung von Abweichungen in der Pro-Kopf-Produktion ganz deutlich von einer Region zur anderen schwanken. Zur Interpretation der empirischen Ergebnisse wird zunachst die Behauptung aufgestellt, dass die geographische Verteilung von Produktion, Produktivitat und Erwerbstatigkeit teilweise durch Unterschiede in den regulativen Bestimmungen zu suchen sind, die in verschiedenen Landern und Regionen zur Anwendung gelangen, und sodann, dass der Begriff regionaler Leistung der Erweiterung bedarf, um nicht nur die Dynamik der Produktivitatsordnung, sondern auch Struktur und Organisation des Marktes fur Erwerbstatigkeit und seine Verknupfung mit dem System der gesellschaftlichen Reproduktion in Betracht zu ziehen.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Dunford, 1996. "Disparities in Employment, Productivity and Output in the EU: The Roles of Labour Market Governance and Welfare Regimes," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 339-357.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:30:y:1996:i:4:p:339-357
    DOI: 10.1080/00343409612331349698

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    Cited by:

    1. Görkemli Kazar & Altuð Kazar, 2015. "Is “Harmonious Development” Valid for European Union Regions?," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(4), pages 954-967.
    2. Euijune Kim & Euijune Kim & Sung Woong Hong & Soo Jung Ha, 2003. "Impacts of national development and decentralization policies on regional income disparity in Korea," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 37(1), pages 79-91, February.
    3. María Emma Santos, 2005. "Factors influencing income inequality across urban Argentina (1998-2003)," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 126, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Belitski Maksim, 2011. "Driving Urban Economic Growth – Evidence from Transition Economies," EERC Working Paper Series 11/10e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.


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