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Determinants of Efficiency in Least Developed Countries: Further Evidence from Nepalese Manufacturing Firms


  • Edward Oczkowski
  • Kishor Sharma


Using a translog stochastic production frontier and maximum likelihood econometric methods, we estimate and model the determinants of firm level efficiency in the Nepalese context. Our results are broadly in line with theoretical expectations. We find that large firms are more efficient and that a higher capital intensity leads to inefficiency. There is no statistical evidence to suggest that foreign participation leads to efficiency improvements. Also, we do not observe any link between export intensity and efficiency improvement. We find that higher protection leads to inefficiency. Overall, our results suggest that an outward looking industrial strategy, which relies on less intervention and permits the development of large-scale industries, is conducive to efficiency improvement in least developed countries (LDCs) like Nepal.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward Oczkowski & Kishor Sharma, 2005. "Determinants of Efficiency in Least Developed Countries: Further Evidence from Nepalese Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 617-630.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:41:y:2005:i:4:p:617-630
    DOI: 10.1080/00220380500092721

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kishor Sharma & Sisira Jayasuriya & Edward Oczkowski, 2000. "Liberalization and Productivity Growth: The Case of Manufacturing Industry in Nepal," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(2), pages 205-222.
    2. Dani Rodrik, 1988. "Closing the Technology Gap: Does Trade Liberalization Really Help?," NBER Working Papers 2654, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Wilson, Paul & Hadley, David & Asby, Carol, 2001. "The influence of management characteristics on the technical efficiency of wheat farmers in eastern England," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 329-338, March.
    4. Sharma, K., 2000. "Liberalization and Structural Change: Evidence from Nepalese Manufacturing," Papers 812, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    5. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    6. Pack, Howard, 1984. "Productivity and technical choice : Applications to the textile industry," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1-2), pages 153-176.
    7. Dani Rodrik, 1992. "The Limits of Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(1), pages 87-105, Winter.
    8. Kodde, David A & Palm, Franz C, 1986. "Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restriction s," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1243-1248, September.
    9. Nishimizu, Mieko & Robinson, Sherman, 1984. "Trade policies and productivity change in semi-industrialized countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1-2), pages 177-206.
    10. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
    11. George E. Battese, 1997. "A Note On The Estimation Of Cobb-Douglas Production Functions When Some Explanatory Variables Have Zero Values," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1-3), pages 250-252.
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    Cited by:

    1. Santosh Kumar, Sahu & K., Narayanan, 2011. "Energy Intensity and Firm Performance: Do Energy Clusters Matter?," MPRA Paper 43457, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Chia-Lin Chang & Stéphane Robin, 2012. "Knowledge sourcing and firm performance in an industrializing economy: the case of Taiwan (1992–2003)," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 947-986, June.
    3. Sharma, Kishor, 2006. "The political economy of civil war in Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1237-1253, July.
    4. Mari Maté-Sánchez-Val & Antonia Madrid-Guijarro, 2011. "A spatial efficiency index proposal: an empirical application to SMEs productivity," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 47(2), pages 353-371, October.
    5. Santosh Kumar Sahu, 2014. "Energy Use Patterns and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indian Industries," Working Papers 2014-092, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    6. Kishor Sharma & Pemasiri J. Gunawardana, 2012. "The role of price and nonprice factors in predicting Australia's trade performance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(21), pages 2679-2686, July.
    7. repec:jfr:ijfr11:v:8:y:2017:i:3:p:172-186 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Miao Wang & M. C. Sunny Wong, 2016. "Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Firm-level Technical Efficiency: Stochastic Frontier Model Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 44(3), pages 335-361, September.
    9. David T. Yi, 2010. "Determinants of fundraising efficiency of nonprofit organizations: evidence from US public charitable organizations," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(7), pages 465-475.

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