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Interactive Learning or Technology Transfer as a Way to Catch-Up? Analysing the Wind Energy Industry in Denmark and India


  • Kari Kristinsson
  • Rekha Rao


This paper uses sectoral systems of innovation framework to examine the relationship between technology policy and industrial development by comparing the emergence of the wind energy industry in Denmark and India. Since the late 1970s Denmark has led the development of a global wind energy industry and in 2004 wind energy supplied 18.8 per cent of Denmark's electricity consumption. India was however a late entrant that managed in a few years to establish itself as the fifth largest producer of wind energy in the world. We suggest that India's unique policy of “interactive learning” with international and especially Danish actors, instead of imitation of foreign technology policies and institutions, was a substantial contributor to India's success in developing their wind energy industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Kari Kristinsson & Rekha Rao, 2008. "Interactive Learning or Technology Transfer as a Way to Catch-Up? Analysing the Wind Energy Industry in Denmark and India," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 297-320.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:indinn:v:15:y:2008:i:3:p:297-320 DOI: 10.1080/13662710802040903

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Friebe, Christian A. & von Flotow, Paschen & Täube, Florian A., 2014. "Exploring technology diffusion in emerging markets – the role of public policy for wind energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 217-226.
    2. Rai, Varun & Funkhouser, Erik, 2015. "Emerging insights on the dynamic drivers of international low-carbon technology transfer," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 350-364.
    3. Jolly, Suyash & Raven, R.P.J.M., 2015. "Collective institutional entrepreneurship and contestations in wind energy in India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 999-1011.
    4. Valentine, Scott Victor, 2013. "Wind power policy in complex adaptive markets," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-10.
    5. Corsatea, Teodora Diana & Giaccaria, Sergio & Arántegui, Roberto Lacal, 2014. "The role of sources of finance on the development of wind technology," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 140-149.
    6. Bento, Nuno & Fontes, Margarida, 2015. "The construction of a new technological innovation system in a follower country: Wind energy in Portugal," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 197-210.


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