Remedying "Unfair Acts": U.S. Pay Equity by Race and Gender
Case studies in Canada, Australia, and the U.S. have found that pay equity (or comparable worth) has reduced the gender-based wage gap substantially, and results of research on the gender composition of jobs have been used guiding pay equity implementation. But, in general, the racial composition jobs remains overlooked in the literature and in public policy. We extend previous work on eliminating the wage penalty of employment in female-dominated occupations to estimating the potential effect of adopting comparable worth to alleviate race- as well as gender-based wage discrimination. First we report the negative impact of racial-ethnic and female composition of jobs on pay in the U.S. Correcting for this form of wage discrimination, we find that implementing comparable worth would appreciably narrow the race- and gender-based wage gaps and significantly reduce the percent of workers earning poverty-level wages, especially among women of color. Close to 50 percent of women of color and 40 percent of white women currently earning less than the federal poverty threshold for a family of three would be lifted out of poverty. Second, we show that, in addition to the effects of occupational concentration, being a woman, an African-American, or a worker of Hispanic origin negatively and significantly affects pay. Not every type of wage discrimination is alleviated by a pay equity policy, which is why activists have also supported anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies for women and people of color.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 4 (1998)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/RFEC20|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.tandfonline.com/pricing/journal/RFEC20|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marlene Kim, 1997. "The Working Poor: Lousy Jobs or Lazy Workers?," Macroeconomics 9712002, EconWPA.
- Marianne A. Ferber & Helen M. Lowry, 1976. "The Sex Differential in Earnings: A Reappraisal," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 377-387, April.
- Barry T. Hirsch & Edward J. Schumacher, 1992. "Labor Earnings, Discrimination, and the Racial Composition of Jobs," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(4), pages 602-628.
- Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong & Rudy Fichtenbaum, 1993. "Black-white wage differential: The relative importance of human capital and labor market structure," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 19-52, March.
- Marianne A. Ferber, 1976. "The sex differential in earnings: A reappraisal," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(3), pages 377-387, April.
- Johnson, George & Solon, Gary, 1986. "Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1117-25, December.
- Orazem, Peter F & Mattila, J Peter, 1990.
"The Implementation Process of Comparable Worth: Winners and Losers,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(1), pages 134-52, February.
- Mattila, J. Peter & Orazem, Peter, 1990. "The Implementation Process of Comparable Worth: Winners and Losers," Staff General Research Papers 10842, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Lynda J. Ames, 1995. "Fixing Women's Wages: The Effectiveness of Comparable Worth Policies," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 709-725, July.
- Ehrenberg, Ronald G & Smith, Robert S, 1987. "Comparable-Worth Wage Adjustments and Female Employment in the State and Local Sector," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(1), pages 43-62, January.
- R. G. Gregory & R. C. Duncan, 1981. "Segmented Labor Market Theories and the Australian Experience of Equal Pay for Women," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 3(3), pages 403-428, April.
- Morley Gunderson & W. Craig Riddell, 1992. "Comparable Worth: Canada'S Experience," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 10(3), pages 85-94, 07.
- Randy albelda, 1985. ""Nice Work If You Can Get It": Segmentation of White and Black Women Workers in the Post-War Period," Review of Radical Political Economics, Union for Radical Political Economics, vol. 17(3), pages 72-85, September.
- Marlene Kim, 1997. "The Working Poor: Lousy Jobs or Lazy Workers?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_194, Levy Economics Institute.
- Lynda J. Ames, 1995. "Fixing women's wages: The effectiveness of comparable worth policies," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 709-725, July.
- Deborah Figart, 1997. "Gender as More Than a Dummy Variable: Feminist Approaches to Discrimination," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(1), pages 1-32.
- Bergmann, Barbara R, 1971. "The Effect on White Incomes of Discrimination in Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(2), pages 294-313, March-Apr.
- O'Neill, June & Brien, Michael & Cunningham, James, 1989. "Effects of Comparable Worth Policy: Evidence from Washington State," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 305-09, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:4:y:1998:i:3:p:7-28. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.