IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

School expenditures and student achievement: evidence for the United States

  • Rati Ram
Registered author(s):

    Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function in the fixed-effects format to explore further the nexus between school expenditure and student achievement in the United States. Five main points are noted. First, the effect of per-pupil expenditure is positive and carries high statistical significance in some reasonable models. Second, however, the positive estimate is quantitatively modest. Third, the estimates suggest a structural dissimilarity between the models for verbal and mathematics scores on the scholastic assessment test, and the effect of expenditure seems stronger for the latter. Fourth, introduction of state-specific fixed-effects dummies leads to some changes in the pattern of estimates. Fifth, methodologically, despite only minor variations in the variable values over time, the fixed-effects format generates highly significant parameter estimates in most cases. A secondary exploration does not indicate that the effect of expenditures is stronger in low-achievement contexts than in the high-achievement cases.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Education Economics.

    Volume (Year): 12 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 169-176

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:taf:edecon:v:12:y:2004:i:2:p:169-176
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    Order Information: Web:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1996. "School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
    2. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-77, September.
    3. Jonathan Temple, 1999. "The New Growth Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 112-156, March.
    4. Hanushek, Eric A., 2006. "School Resources," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    5. Eide, Eric & Showalter, Mark H., 1998. "The effect of school quality on student performance: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 345-350, March.
    6. Mark C. Berger & Eugenia F. Toma, 1994. "Variation in state education policies and effects on student performance," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(3), pages 477-491.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:edecon:v:12:y:2004:i:2:p:169-176. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.