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Demand shocks and firm-financed R&D expenditures

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  • Matthew Rafferty
  • Mark Funk

Abstract

Business cycles might affect firms' ability and incentive to perform R&D. Firms finance most R&D activities out of cash flow so when cash flow decreases the funds available for R&D also decreases. This limits the ability of firms to perform R&D, potentially leading to reduced R&D expenditures during recessions. However, business cycles also influence the incentive to perform R&D. The opportunity cost of funds devoted to R&D falls during recessions since the return on production will likely be lower than during an expansion. During recessions, this provides firms with an incentive to redistribute an existing pool of funds away from production and towards R&D projects. This paper tests whether the business cycle influences the incentive and ability of firms to engage in R&D activities, in particular examining whether the response is symmetric across the business cycle.

Suggested Citation

  • Matthew Rafferty & Mark Funk, 2004. "Demand shocks and firm-financed R&D expenditures," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(14), pages 1529-1536.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:36:y:2004:i:14:p:1529-1536
    DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000217959
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Benoît Mulkay & Bronwyn H, Hall & Jacques Mairesse, 2000. "Firm Level Investment and R&D in France and the United States : A Comparison," Working Papers 2000-49, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    2. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    3. Yongcheol Shin & Ron P Smith & Mohammad Hashem Pesaran, 1998. "Pooled Mean Group Estimation of Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels," ESE Discussion Papers 16, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hud, Martin & Rammer, Christian, 2014. "FuE- und Innovationsausgaben während der Krise: Strategien zur Sicherung des Innovationserfolgs," ZEW Dokumentationen 14-03, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. repec:eee:jbrese:v:84:y:2018:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Taiji Harashima, 2005. "The Pro-cyclical R&D Puzzle: Technology Shocks and Pro-cyclical R&D Expenditure," Macroeconomics 0507012, EconWPA, revised 12 Jul 2005.
    4. Rammer, Christian, 2012. "Schwerpunktbericht zur Innovationserhebung 2010: Management von Innovationsprojekten - Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise," ZEW Dokumentationen 12-03, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Christian Rammer, 2011. "Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise auf die Innovationstätigkeit der Unternehmen in Deutschland," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 80(3), pages 13-34.
    6. Hans van Ophem & Noud P.A. van Giersbergen & Kees Jan van Garderen & Maurice J.G. Bun, 2017. "The cyclicality of R&D investment revisited," UvA-Econometrics Working Papers 17-01, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Dept. of Econometrics.

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