IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Convergence in Sub-Saharan Africa: a nonstationary panel data approach


  • Suzanne McCoskey


Given the development of time series econometrics and nonstationary data analysis, St. Aubyn (Empirical Economics, 24, 23-44, 1999) demonstrates a new paradigm for testing income convergence, or better defined, income stability, namely testing the stationarity of pair-wise income differentials. In this paper, a panel data set of Sub-Saharan African countries is constructed and panel cointegration and unit root tests are used to investigate the convergence properties of incomes and standards of living within Africa. Overall, little evidence is found to substantiate claims of convergence across Africa, although in some cases, smaller convergence clubs within Africa may be found. In addition the use of nonstationary panel data techniques is proposed for the testing and establishing of coherent convergence clubs.

Suggested Citation

  • Suzanne McCoskey, 2002. "Convergence in Sub-Saharan Africa: a nonstationary panel data approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 819-829.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:34:y:2002:i:7:p:819-829
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840110061668

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. M. Kabir Hassan & David R. Tufte, 1998. "Exchange rate volatility and aggregate export growth in Bangladesh," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(2), pages 189-201, February.
    2. Serletis, Apostolos, 1992. "Export growth and Canadian economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 133-145, January.
    3. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Determination of Cointegration Rank in the Presence of a Linear Trend," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 383-397, August.
    4. Chow, Peter C. Y., 1987. "Causality between export growth and industrial development : Empirial evidence from the NICs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 55-63, June.
    5. Arize, Augustine C & Osang, Thomas & Slottje, Daniel J, 2000. "Exchange-Rate Volatility and Foreign Trade: Evidence from Thirteen LDC's," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 18(1), pages 10-17, January.
    6. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    7. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    8. Michaely, Michael, 1977. "Exports and growth : An empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 49-53, February.
    9. Chowdhury, Abdur R, 1993. "Does Exchange Rate Volatility Depress Trade Flows? Evidence from Error-Correction Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 700-706, November.
    10. Oxley, Les, 1993. "Cointegration, causality and export-led growth in Portugal, 1865-1985," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 163-166.
    11. Udo Broll & Bernhard Eckwert, 1999. "Exchange Rate Volatility and International Trade," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 178-185, July.
    12. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
    13. Arize, Augustine C., 1998. "The long-run relationship between import flows and real exchange-rate volatility: The experience of eight European economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 417-435.
    14. Feder, Gershon, 1983. "On exports and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-2), pages 59-73.
    15. A. R. Pagan & A. D. Hall & P. K. Trivedi, 1983. "Assessing the Variability of Inflation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 585-596.
    16. King, Robert G. & Plosser, Charles I. & Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1991. "Stochastic Trends and Economic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 819-840, September.
    17. Paul De Grauwe, 1988. "Exchange Rate Variability and the Slowdown in Growth of International Trade," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(1), pages 63-84, March.
    18. A. C. Arize & S. S. Shwiff, 1998. "Does exchange-rate volatility affect import flows in G-7 Countries? Evidence from cointegration models," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(10), pages 1269-1276.
    19. Pantula, Sastry G., 1989. "Testing for Unit Roots in Time Series Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 256-271, August.
    20. Kenen, Peter B & Rodrik, Dani, 1986. "Measuring and Analyzing the Effects of Short-term Volatility in Real Exchange Rates," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 311-315, May.
    21. Tyler, William G., 1981. "Growth and export expansion in developing countries : Some empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 121-130, August.
    22. Smith, C. E., 1999. "Exchange rate variation, commodity price variation and the implications for international trade," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 471-491.
    23. Lastrapes, William D. & Koray, Faik, 1990. "Exchange rate volatility and U.S. multilateral trade flows," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 341-362.
    24. Dickey, David A & Pantula, Sastry G, 1987. "Determining the Ordering of Differencing in Autoregressive Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(4), pages 455-461, October.
    25. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    26. Kavoussi, Rostam M., 1984. "Export expansion and economic growth : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 241-250.
    27. Jung, Woo S. & Marshall, Peyton J., 1985. "Exports, growth and causality in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-12.
    28. Gonzalo, Jesus, 1994. "Five alternative methods of estimating long-run equilibrium relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 203-233.
    29. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    30. Padma Gotur, 1985. "Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade: Some Further Evidence (Effets de l'instabilité des taux de change sur le commerce mondial: nouvelles constatations) (Efectos de la inestabilidad de los t," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(3), pages 475-512, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Matthias Busse & Ceren Erdogan & Henning Mühlen, 2016. "China's Impact on Africa – The Role of Trade, FDI and Aid," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(2), pages 228-262, May.
    2. Anthony Rezitis, 2005. "Agricultural productivity convergence across Europe and the United States of America," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(7), pages 443-446.
    3. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darné & Jean-François Hoarau, 2009. "Does the real GDP per capita convergence hold in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa?," Working Papers hal-00422522, HAL.
    4. Baliamoune, Mina N., 2002. "Assessing the Impact of One Aspect of Globalization on Economic Growth in Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 091, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Comparative Economics of Catch-up in Output per Worker, Total Factor Productivity and Technological Gain in Sub-Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(2), pages 215-228, June.
    6. Arbache, Jorge Saba & Page, John, 2008. "Hunting for Leopards: Long-Run Country Income Dynamics in Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 080, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darne & Jean-François Hoarau, 2012. "Convergence of real per capita GDP within COMESA countries: A panel unit root evidence," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 49(1), pages 53-71, August.
    8. Zheng Ying & Chang-Rui Dong & Hsu-Ling Chang & Chi-Wei Su, 2014. "Are Real GDP Levels Stationary in African Countries?," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(3), pages 392-401, September.
    9. Matsuki, Takashi & Usami, Ryoichi, 2008. "Long-run growth patterns within Asian NIEs: Empirical analysis based on the panel unit root test, allowing the heterogeneity of time trend and endogenous multiple structural breaks," MPRA Paper 11541, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Matsuki, Takashi & Usami, Ryoichi, 2007. "China's Regional Convergence in Panels with Multiple Structural Breaks," MPRA Paper 10167, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 May 2008.
    11. Sabyasachi Kar & Debajit Jha & Alpana Kateja, 2011. "Club-convergence and polarization of states: A nonparametric analysis of post-reform India," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 53-72, April.
    12. Mohamed Siry Bah & Thomas Jobert, 2015. "Une analyse empirique du processus de convergence des pays africains," GREDEG Working Papers 2015-33, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    13. Burcu Ozcan, 2014. "Does Income Converge among EU Member Countries following the Post-War Period? Evidence from the PANKPSS Test," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 22-38, October.
    14. Sergio J. Rey & Mark V. Janikas, 2005. "Regional convergence, inequality, and space," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 155-176, April.
    15. Busse, Matthias & Erdogan, Ceren & Mühlen, Henning, 2017. "Structural transformation and its relevance for economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 23-2017, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
    16. Sergio J. Rey & Mark V. Janikas, 2003. "Convergence and space," Urban/Regional 0311002, EconWPA, revised 16 Nov 2003.
    17. Romero-Ávila, Diego, 2009. "Multiple Breaks, Terms of Trade Shocks and the Unit-Root Hypothesis for African Per Capita Real GDP," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1051-1068, June.
    18. Abdulnasser Hatemi-J & Manuchehr Irandoust, 2006. "The response of industry employment to exchange rate shocks: evidence from panel cointegration," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 415-421.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:34:y:2002:i:7:p:819-829. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.