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Examining the export-led growth hypothesis for Spain in the last century


  • Jacint Balaguer
  • Manuel Cantavella-Jorda


The relationship between real income and real exports is examined for the Spanish economy in the last century (1901-1999) using annual data. The significant changes of the Spanish economy during this period have made of the analysis a mixed one. The export-led growth hypothesis is supported during the economic liberalization period whereas for the protectionist and autarkic period neither a long-run nor a short-run relationship between those two variables are found. When the century as a whole is considered, then, a unidirectional causality running from income to exports is exhibited.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacint Balaguer & Manuel Cantavella-Jorda, 2001. "Examining the export-led growth hypothesis for Spain in the last century," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(10), pages 681-685.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:8:y:2001:i:10:p:681-685 DOI: 10.1080/13504850010038687

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Jacint Balaguer & Manuel Cantavella-Jorda, 2004. "Structural change in exports and economic growth: cointegration and causality analysis for Spain (1961-2000)," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(5), pages 473-477.
    2. Jaime Andrés Collazos & Pedro Luis Rosero, 2010. "¿Posee el Valle del Cauca una economía transformadora de importaciones orientadas a la Exportación?," DOCUMENTOS DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS 006880, UNIVERSIDAD ICESI.
    3. Akmal, Muhammad Shahbaz & Ahmad, Khalil & Ali, Muhammad, 2009. "Exports-Led Growth Hypothesis in Pakistan: Further Evidence," MPRA Paper 16043, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. George A. Vamvoukas, 2007. "Trade Liberalization and Economic Expansion: A Sensitivity Analysis," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 5(1), pages 71-88.
    5. Balaguer, Jacint & Cantavella-Jorda, Manuel, 2004. "Export composition and Spanish economic growth: evidence from the 20th century," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 165-179, February.
    6. Muhammad Shahbaz & Pervaz Azim & Khalil Ahmad, 2011. "Exports-Led Growth Hypothesis in Pakistan: Further Evidence," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(3), pages 182-197, September.
    7. repec:col:000180:015749 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Jacint Balaguer & Tatiana Florica & Jordi Ripollés, 2015. "Foreign trade and economic growth in Spain (1900–2012): the role of energy imports," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 32(3), pages 359-375, December.
    9. Ferda Halicioglu, 2007. "A Multivariate Causality Analysis of Export and Growth for Turkey," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2007_05, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
    10. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Sharma, Susan Sunila & Bannigidadmath, Deepa, 2013. "Does tourism predict macroeconomic performance in Pacific Island countries?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 780-786.
    11. Nguyen, Hong-Oanh & Tongzon, Jose, 2010. "Causal nexus between the transport and logistics sector and trade: The case of Australia," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 135-146, May.
    12. zaharey, 2005. "Structural change in Export and economics growth: Analysis for spain (1980-2001)," Econometrics 0506007, EconWPA.
    13. Fugarolas, Guadalupe & Mañalich, Isis & Matesanz, David, 2007. "Are Exports Causing Growth? Evidence On International Trade Expansion In Cuba, 1960-2004," MPRA Paper 6323, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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