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A further step into the ELGH and TLGH for Spain and Italy


  • Isabel Cortés_Jiménez

    (Universitat de Barcelona)

  • Manuela Pulina

    (Università di Sassari)


Nowadays many developing countries focus on economic policies for promoting international tourism and exports expansion as a potential source of economic growth of the country. However, the understanding of the relationship between exports and economic growth is still ongoing. When treating the relationship between tourism and economic growth, considering tourism as a non-traditional export few studies have been published to date. This paper has the objective to assess if exports and tourism have really promoted growth by means of the export-led growth hypothesis (ELGH) and the tourism-led growth hypothesis (TLGH). The cases under analysis are Spain and Italy, two of the most important countries worldwide regarding the expansion of tourism. Cointegration techniques and the multivariate Granger causality test are applied. Results reveal that exports cause economic growth in the long-term for both countries, whilst only for Spain tourism appears as a factor which influences economic growth in the lon-run.

Suggested Citation

  • Isabel Cortés_Jiménez & Manuela Pulina, 2006. "A further step into the ELGH and TLGH for Spain and Italy," Working Papers 2006.118, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2006.118

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Brida, Juan Gabriel & Barquet, Andrea & Risso, Wiston Adrián, 2009. "Causality between Economic Growth and Tourism Expansion: Empirical Evidence from Trentino - Alto Adige," MPRA Paper 25316, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Dec 2009.
    2. Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2011. "Tourism, Exports and FDI as a Means of Growth: Evidence from four Asian Countries," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(40), pages 131-151, June.
    3. Raza, Syed Ali & Jawaid, Syed Tehseen, 2013. "Terrorism and tourism: A conjunction and ramification in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 65-70.
    4. Schubert, Stefan Franz & Brida, Juan Gabriel, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of Economic Growth in a Small Tourism Driven Economy," MPRA Paper 16737, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2008:i:21:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Noor-e-Saher, 2011. "Impact of Oil Prices on Economic Growth and Exports Earning: In the Case of Pakistan and India," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(40), pages 117-151, June.

    More about this item


    Economic Growth; Exports; Tourism; Cointegration; Multivariate Granger Causality; Spain; Italy;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • O49 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Other

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