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Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia

Author

Listed:
  • Tsedeke Abate

    ()

  • Bekele Shiferaw
  • Abebe Menkir
  • Dagne Wegary
  • Yilma Kebede
  • Kindie Tesfaye
  • Menale Kassie
  • Gezahegn Bogale
  • Berhanu Tadesse
  • Tolera Keno

Abstract

Maize became increasingly important in the food security of Ethiopia following the major drought and famine that occurred in 1984. More than 9 million smallholder households, more than for any other crop in the country, grow maize in Ethiopia at present. Ethiopia has doubled its maize productivity and production in less than two decades. The yield, currently estimated at >3 metric tons/ha, is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, after South Africa; yield gains for Ethiopia grew at an annual rate of 68 kg/ha between 1990 and 2013, only second to South Africa and greater than Mexico, China, or India. The maize area covered by improved varieties in Ethiopia grew from 14 % in 2004 to 40 % in 2013, and the application rate of mineral fertilizers from 16 to 34 kg/ha during the same period. Ethiopia’s extension worker to farmer ratio is 1:476, compared to 1:1000 for Kenya, 1:1603 for Malawi and 1:2500 for Tanzania. Increased use of improved maize varieties and mineral fertilizers, coupled with increased extension services and the absence of devastating droughts are the key factors promoting the accelerated growth in maize productivity in Ethiopia. Ethiopia took a homegrown solutions approach to the research and development of its maize and other commodities. The lesson from Ethiopia’s experience with maize is that sustained investment in agricultural research and development and policy support by the national government are crucial for continued growth of agriculture. Copyright The Author(s) 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Tsedeke Abate & Bekele Shiferaw & Abebe Menkir & Dagne Wegary & Yilma Kebede & Kindie Tesfaye & Menale Kassie & Gezahegn Bogale & Berhanu Tadesse & Tolera Keno, 2015. "Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 7(5), pages 965-981, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:ssefpa:v:7:y:2015:i:5:p:965-981
    DOI: 10.1007/s12571-015-0488-z
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stefan Dercon & Daniel O. Gilligan & John Hoddinott & Tassew Woldehanna, 2009. "The Impact of Agricultural Extension and Roads on Poverty and Consumption Growth in Fifteen Ethiopian Villages," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(4), pages 1007-1021.
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    6. Spielman, David J. & Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework & Alemu, Dawit, 2012. "Seed, fertilizer, and agricultural extension in Ethiopia," IFPRI book chapters, in: Dorosh, Paul A. & Rashid, Shahidur (ed.), Food and agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and policy challenges, chapter 4, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Melinda Smale & John Olwande, 2014. "Demand for maize hybrids and hybrid change on smallholder farms in Kenya," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 45(4), pages 409-420, July.
    8. Bernard, Tanguy & Spielman, David J., 2009. "Reaching the rural poor through rural producer organizations? A study of agricultural marketing cooperatives in Ethiopia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 60-69, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:7:p:2378-:d:156908 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Oumer, Ali M. & Burton, Michael, 2018. "Drivers and Synergies in the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Practices: A Dynamic Perspective," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 273871, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Abro, Z.A. & Debela, B.L., 2018. "Technical change through crop improvement: are there synergies or tradeoffs in land productivity and efficiency?," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277086, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. repec:eee:wdevel:v:105:y:2018:i:c:p:286-298 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:spr:ssefpa:v:10:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s12571-017-0759-y is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:gam:jagris:v:9:y:2019:i:5:p:105-:d:229909 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:spr:jecstr:v:6:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1186_s40008-017-0093-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eee:agisys:v:172:y:2019:i:c:p:16-27 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:spr:ssefpa:v:10:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s12571-018-0772-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Mengistu, T.W., 2018. "Institutional arrangements and governance challenges in regulating seed quality in Ethiopia," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 276018, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. repec:eee:agisys:v:162:y:2018:i:c:p:220-228 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:spr:ssefpa:v:10:y:2018:i:6:d:10.1007_s12571-018-0865-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:spr:climat:v:147:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s10584-018-2149-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Tesfaye, Kindie & Sonder, Kai & Cairns, Jill & Magorokosho, Cosmos & Tarekegn, Amsal & Kassie, Girma T. & Getaneh, Fite & Abdoulaye, Tahirou & Abate, Tsedeke & Erenstein, Olaf, 2016. "Targeting Drought-Tolerant Maize Varieties in Southern Africa: A Geospatial Crop Modeling Approach Using Big Data," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, vol. 19(A), pages 1-18.
    15. repec:ags:ifaamr:266448 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Komarek, A. & Thurlow, J. & De Pinto, A. & Kwon, H.-Y. & Koo, J., 2018. "Economy-wide effects of climate-smart agriculture in Ethiopia," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277095, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Jaleta, M. & Marenya, P. & Beshir, B., 2018. "Does crop diversification reduce downside risk in maize yield enhancing investments? Evidence from Ethiopia using panel data," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277217, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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