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Retailer choice and loyalty schemes—evidence from Sweden


  • Johan Lundberg


  • Sofia Lundberg



From economic theory, it is known that consumer loyalty schemes can have lock-in effects resulting in entry barriers and higher prices. This paper concerns consumer loyalty schemes where the main issue is to test the hypothesis that loyalty scheme membership affects the choice of food retailer. This choice is modeled as a random utility maximization problem estimated with maximum likelihood. Based on a data set covering 1,551 Swedish households, we find evidence supporting this hypothesis. Further, according to the results, store characteristics and geographical distance matter for the choice of retailer while household characteristics are not found to have a significant effect.
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Suggested Citation

  • Johan Lundberg & Sofia Lundberg, 2010. "Retailer choice and loyalty schemes—evidence from Sweden," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 137-146, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:lsprsc:v:3:y:2010:i:3:p:137-146
    DOI: 10.1007/s12076-010-0044-6

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joshua S. Gans & Stephen P. King, 2006. "PAYING FOR LOYALTY: PRODUCT BUNDLING IN OLIGOPOLY -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 43-62, March.
    2. Fredrik Carlsson & Åsa Lofgren, 2006. "Airline choice, switching costs and frequent flyer programmes," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(13), pages 1469-1475.
    3. Beggs, Alan W & Klemperer, Paul, 1992. "Multi-period Competition with Switching Costs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(3), pages 651-666, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gullstrand Joakim & Jörgensen Christian, 2012. "Local Price Competition: The Case of Swedish Food Retailers," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-27, March.

    More about this item


    Bonus card; Conditional logit; Consumer choice; Distance; Food retailer; Loyalty scheme; D12; L49; L66; L81; R10;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • L49 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Other
    • L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General


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