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Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks

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  • S. Heise
  • R. Kühn

Abstract

The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, {\em but also} by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.
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  • S. Heise & R. Kühn, 2012. "Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 85(4), pages 1-19, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:eurphb:v:85:y:2012:i:4:p:1-19
    DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2012-20740-0
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    Cited by:

    1. Annika Birch & Tomaso Aste, 2014. "Systemic Losses Due to Counter Party Risk in a Stylized Banking System," Papers 1402.3688, arXiv.org.
    2. Diego Aparicio & Daniel Fraiman, 2015. "Banking Networks And Leverage Dependence In Emerging Countries," Advances in Complex Systems (ACS), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 18(07n08), pages 1-21, November.
    3. Henry, Jérôme & Zimmermann, Maik & Leber, Miha & Kolb, Markus & Grodzicki, Maciej & Amzallag, Adrien & Vouldis, Angelos & Hałaj, Grzegorz & Pancaro, Cosimo & Gross, Marco & Baudino, Patrizia & Sydow, , 2013. "A macro stress testing framework for assessing systemic risks in the banking sector," Occasional Paper Series 152, European Central Bank.
    4. Zha, Yiling & Power, David & Tantisantiwong, Nongnuch, 2020. "The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 309-320.
    5. Tathagata Banerjee & Zachary Feinstein, 2018. "Impact of Contingent Payments on Systemic Risk in Financial Networks," Papers 1805.08544, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2018.
    6. Andreas Mühlbacher & Thomas Guhr, 2018. "Credit Risk Meets Random Matrices: Coping with Non-Stationary Asset Correlations," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(2), pages 1-25, April.
    7. Vuillemey, Guillaume & Peltonen, Tuomas A., 2015. "Disentangling the bond–CDS nexus: A stress test model of the CDS market," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 32-45.
    8. Tabak, Benjamin M. & de Castro Miranda, Rodrigo & da Silva Medeiros, Maurício, 2016. "Contagion in CDS, banking and equity markets," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 120-134.
    9. Shanshan Jiang & Hong Fan & Min Xia, 2018. "Credit Risk Contagion Based on Asymmetric Information Association," Complexity, Hindawi, vol. 2018, pages 1-11, July.
    10. Chen, Tingqiang & Wang, Jiepeng & Liu, Haifei & He, Yuanping, 2019. "Contagion model on counterparty credit risk in the CRT market by considering the heterogeneity of counterparties and preferential-random mixing attachment," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 520(C), pages 458-480.
    11. Marco Bardoscia & Fabio Caccioli & Juan Ignacio Perotti & Gianna Vivaldo & Guido Caldarelli, 2016. "Distress Propagation in Complex Networks: The Case of Non-Linear DebtRank," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(10), pages 1-12, October.
    12. Wang, Lei & Li, Shouwei & Chen, Tingqiang, 2019. "Investor behavior, information disclosure strategy and counterparty credit risk contagion," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 37-49.
    13. Lei Shi & Neil Allan & John Evans & Yin Yun, 2018. "Significance of Controllable and Uncontrollable Drivers in Credit Defaults," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 37(1), pages 30-41, March.
    14. Azusa Takeyama & Nick Constantinou & Dmitri Vinogradov, 2012. "Credit Risk Contagion and the Global Financial Crisis," IMES Discussion Paper Series 12-E-15, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    15. Pierre Paga & Reimer Kuhn, 2014. "Contagion in an interacting economy," Papers 1409.2625, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2015.
    16. Andreas Muhlbacher & Thomas Guhr, 2018. "Credit Risk Meets Random Matrices: Coping with Non-Stationary Asset Correlations," Papers 1803.00261, arXiv.org.
    17. Brunnermeier, M. & Clerc, L. & Scheicher, M., 2013. "Assessing contagion risks in the CDS market," Financial Stability Review, Banque de France, issue 17, pages 123-134, April.
    18. Clerc, L. & Gabrieli, S. & Kern, S. & El Omari, Y., 2014. "Monitoring the European CDS Market through Networks: Implications for Contagion Risks," Working papers 477, Banque de France.
    19. Andre R. Neveu, 2018. "A survey of network-based analysis and systemic risk measurement," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 13(2), pages 241-281, July.
    20. Financial Stability Committee, Task Force on cross-border Spillover Effects of macroprudential measures & Kok, Christoffer & Reinhardt, Dennis, 2020. "Cross-border spillover effects of macroprudential policies: a conceptual framework," Occasional Paper Series 242, European Central Bank.
    21. Diego Aparicio & Daniel Fraiman, 2015. "Banking Networks and Leverage Dependence: Evidence from Selected Emerging Countries," Papers 1507.01901, arXiv.org.
    22. Marco Bardoscia & Paolo Barucca & Stefano Battiston & Fabio Caccioli & Giulio Cimini & Diego Garlaschelli & Fabio Saracco & Tiziano Squartini & Guido Caldarelli, 2021. "The Physics of Financial Networks," Papers 2103.05623, arXiv.org.
    23. Mehdi Mili, 2018. "Systemic risk spillovers in sovereign credit default swaps in Europe: a spatial approach," Journal of Asset Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(2), pages 133-143, March.

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