IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/eujhec/v14y2013i4p667-675.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names

Author

Listed:
  • Roger Feldman
  • Félix Lobo

Abstract

We take on two subjects of controversy among economists—advertising and trademarks—in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or “International Nonproprietary Names” (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Roger Feldman & Félix Lobo, 2013. "Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(4), pages 667-675, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:eujhec:v:14:y:2013:i:4:p:667-675
    DOI: 10.1007/s10198-012-0414-7
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10198-012-0414-7
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s10198-012-0414-7?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ernst Berndt & Murray Aitken, 2011. "Brand Loyalty, Generic Entry and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals in the Quarter Century after the 1984 Waxman-Hatch Legislation," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 177-201.
    2. Peter J. Huckfeldt & Christopher R. Knittel, 2011. "Pharmaceutical Use Following Generic Entry: Paying Less and Buying Less," NBER Working Papers 17046, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Maria-Isabel Farfan-Portet & Carine Van de Voorde & France Vrijens & Robert Vander Stichele, 2012. "Patient socioeconomic determinants of the choice of generic versus brand name drugs in the context of a reference price system: evidence from Belgian prescription data," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 13(3), pages 301-313, June.
    4. Richard A. Posner, 2005. "Intellectual Property: The Law and Economics Approach," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(2), pages 57-73, Spring.
    5. Leffler, Keith B, 1981. "Persuasion or Information? The Economics of Prescription Drug Advertising," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(1), pages 45-74, April.
    6. Fiona M. Scott Morton, 2002. "Horizontal Integration Between Brand and Generic Firms in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(1), pages 135-168, March.
    7. France Vrijens & Carine Van de Voorde & Maria-Isabel Farfan-Portet & Robert Vander Stichele, 2012. "Patient socioeconomic determinants for the choice of the cheapest molecule within a cluster: evidence from Belgian prescription data," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 13(3), pages 315-325, June.
    8. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
    9. Scott Morton, Fiona M., 2000. "Barriers to entry, brand advertising, and generic entry in the US pharmaceutical industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1085-1104, October.
    10. Lopez-Casasnovas, Guillem & Puig-Junoy, Jaume, 2000. "Review of the literature on reference pricing," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 87-123, November.
    11. Andrew T. Ching, 2010. "A Dynamic Oligopoly Structural Model For The Prescription Drug Market After Patent Expiration," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1175-1207, November.
    12. Richard G. Frank & David S. Salkever, 1997. "Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 75-90, March.
    13. F. M. Scherer, 1993. "Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 97-115, Summer.
    14. Gorecki, Paul K., 1986. "The importance of being first : The case of prescription drugs in Canada," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 371-395, December.
    15. McRae, James J. & Tapon, Francis, 1985. "Some empirical evidence on post-patent barriers to entry in the Canadian pharmaceutical industry," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 43-61, March.
    16. Ernst R. Berndt & Margaret Kyle & Davina Ling, 2003. "The Long Shadow of Patent Expiration. Generic Entry and Rx-to-OTC Switches," NBER Chapters, in: Scanner Data and Price Indexes, pages 229-267, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Aidan Hollis, 2002. "The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(8), pages 723-734, December.
    18. Anonymous, 1950. "World Health Organization," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(3), pages 501-505, August.
    19. Hurwitz, Mark A & Caves, Richard E, 1988. "Persuasion or Information? Promotion and the Shares of Brand Name and Generic Pharmaceuticals," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 299-320, October.
    20. Gorecki, Paul K., 1987. "Barriers to entry in the Canadian pharmaceutical industry : Comments, clarification and extensions," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 59-72, March.
    21. Anonymous, 1950. "World Health Organization," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(4), pages 683-686, November.
    22. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Product Differentiation Advantages of Pioneering Brands," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 349-365, June.
    23. Regan, Tracy L., 2008. "Generic entry, price competition, and market segmentation in the prescription drug market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 930-948, July.
    24. Grabowski, Henry G & Vernon, John M, 1992. "Brand Loyalty, Entry, and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals after the 1984 Drug Act," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(2), pages 331-350, October.
    25. Atanu Saha & Henry Grabowski & Howard Birnbaum & Paul Greenberg & Oded Bizan, 2006. "Generic Competition in the US Pharmaceutical Industry," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 15-38.
    26. Anonymous, 1950. "World Health Organization," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 144-145, February.
    27. Giovanni B. Ramello, 2006. "What'S In A Sign ? Trademark Law And Economic Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 547-565, September.
    28. Lexchin, Joel, 2004. "The effect of generic competition on the price of brand-name drugs," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 47-54, April.
    29. Anonymous, 1950. "World Health Organization," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(2), pages 327-330, May.
    30. Panos Kanavos & Joan Costa-Font & Elizabeth Seeley, 2008. "Competition in off-patent drug markets: Issues, regulation and evidence [‘Substitution laws, insurance coverage, and generic drug use’]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23(55), pages 500-544.
    31. Scherer, F. M., 1985. "Post-patent barriers to entry in the pharmaceutical industry," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 83-87, March.
    32. David Reiffen & Michael R. Ward, 2005. "Generic Drug Industry Dynamics," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 37-49, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. María-Isabel Farfan-Portet & Sophie Gerkens & Isabelle Lepage-Nefkens & Irmgard Vinck & Frank Hulstaert, 2014. "Are biosimilars the next tool to guarantee cost-containment for pharmaceutical expenditures?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 15(3), pages 223-228, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Costa-Font, Joan & McGuire, Alistair & Varol, Nebibe, 2014. "Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1-9.
    2. Patricia M. Danzon & Eric L. Keuffel, 2014. "Regulation of the Pharmaceutical-Biotechnology Industry," NBER Chapters, in: Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned?, pages 407-484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Arcidiacono, Peter & Ellickson, Paul B. & Landry, Peter & Ridley, David B., 2013. "Pharmaceutical followers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 538-553.
    4. Joan Costa-i-Font & Alistair McGuire & Nebibe Varol, 2011. "Does Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Affect the Adoption of Generic Competition? Evidence from the OECD, 1999-2008," CESifo Working Paper Series 3441, CESifo.
    5. Sotiris Vandoros, 2014. "Therapeutic Substitution Post‐Patent Expiry: The Cases Of Ace Inhibitors And Proton Pump Inhibitors," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(5), pages 621-630, May.
    6. Appelt, Silvia, 2010. "Authorized Generic Entry prior to Patent Expiry: Reassessing Incentives for Independent Generic Entry," Discussion Papers in Economics 11476, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    7. Kaiser, Ulrich & Mendez, Susan J. & Rønde, Thomas & Ullrich, Hannes, 2014. "Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: Evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 174-187.
    8. Victoria Serra-Sastre & Simona Bianchi & Jorge Mestre-Ferrandiz & Phill O’Neill, 2021. "Does NICE influence the adoption and uptake of generics in the UK?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 22(2), pages 229-242, March.
    9. Serra-Sastre, Victoria & Bianchi, Simona & Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge & O’Neill, Phill, 2021. "Does NICE influence the adoption and uptake of generics in the UK?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 113639, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Patricia M. Danzon & Michael F. Furukawa, 2011. "Cross-National Evidence on Generic Pharmaceuticals: Pharmacy vs. Physician-Driven Markets," NBER Working Papers 17226, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Granlund, David & Bergman, Mats A., 2018. "Price competition in pharmaceuticals – Evidence from 1303 Swedish markets," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1-12.
    12. Takizawa, Osamu & Urushihara, Hisashi & Tanaka, Shiro & Kawakami, Koji, 2015. "Price difference as a predictor of the selection between brand name and generic statins in Japan," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 119(5), pages 612-619.
    13. Melissa Newham & Jo Seldeslachts & Albert Banal-Estanol, 2018. "Common ownership and market entry: Evidence from the pharmaceutical industry," Working Papers of Department of Management, Strategy and Innovation, Leuven 623896, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), Department of Management, Strategy and Innovation, Leuven.
    14. Iván Moreno-Torres & Jaume Puig-Junoy & Joan-Ramon Borrell, 2009. "Generic Entry into the Regulated Spanish Pharmaceutical Market," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 34(4), pages 373-388, June.
    15. Regan, Tracy L., 2008. "Generic entry, price competition, and market segmentation in the prescription drug market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 930-948, July.
    16. Glenn Ellison & Sara Fisher Ellison, 2011. "Strategic Entry Deterrence and the Behavior of Pharmaceutical Incumbents Prior to Patent Expiration," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 1-36, February.
    17. Gonzalez, Jorge & Sismeiro, Catarina & Dutta, Shantanu & Stern, Philip, 2008. "Can branded drugs benefit from generic entry? The role of detailing and price in switching to non-bioequivalent molecules," International Journal of Research in Marketing, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 247-260.
    18. Murray L. Aitken & Ernst R. Berndt & Barry Bosworth & Iain M. Cockburn & Richard Frank & Michael Kleinrock & Bradley T. Shapiro, 2013. "The Regulation of Prescription Drug Competition and Market Responses: Patterns in Prices and Sales following Loss of Exclusivity," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs, pages 243-271, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Appelt, Silvia, 2010. "Authorized Generic Entry prior to Patent Expiry: Reassessing Incentives for Independent Generic Entry," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 357, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    20. Gonzalez, Jorge & Sismeiro, Catarina & Dutta, Shantanu & Stern, Philip, 2006. "Market Effects of Generic Entry: The Role of Physicians and of Non-Bioequivalent Competitors," MPRA Paper 3717, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2007.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Prescription drug markets; Trademarks; Advertising; Generic names; I18; I11; H41;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:eujhec:v:14:y:2013:i:4:p:667-675. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.