Review of the literature on reference pricing
This paper reviews the literature on reference pricing (RP) in pharmaceutical markets. The RP strategy for cost containment of expenditure on drugs is analyzed as part of the procurement mechanism. We review the existing literature and the state-of-the-art regarding RP by focusing on its economic effects. In particular, we consider: (1) the institutional context and problem-related factors which appear to underline the need to implement an RP strategy; i.e., its nature, characteristics and the sort of health care problems commonly addressed; (2) how RP operates in practice; that is, how third party-payers (the insurers/buyers) have established the RP systems existing on the international scene (i.e., information methods, monitoring procedures and legislative provisions); (3) the range of effects resulting from particular RP strategies (including effects on choice of appropriate pharmaceuticals, insurer savings, total drug expenditures, prices of referenced and non-referenced products and dynamic efficiency; (4) the market failures which an RP policy is supposed to address and the main advantages and drawbacks which emerge from an analysis of its effects. Results suggest that RP systems achieve better their postulated goals (1) if cost inflation in pharmaceuticals is due to high prices rather than to the excess of prescription rates, (2) when the larger is the existing difference in prices among equivalent drugs, and (3) more important is the actual market for generics.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard G. Frank & David S. Salkever, 1995.
"Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals,"
NBER Working Papers
5306, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vandergrift, Michael & Kanavos, Panos, 1997. "Health policy versus industrial policy in the pharmaceutical sector: the case of Canada," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 241-260, September.
- Paul van den Noord & Terje Hagen & Tor Iversen, 1998. "The Norwegian Health Care System," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 198, OECD Publishing.
- Giuliani, Giovanni & Selke, Gisbert & Garattini, Livio, 1998. "The German experience in reference pricing," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 73-85, April.
- Fattore, Giovanni & Jommi, Claudio, 1998. "The new pharmaceutical policy in Italy," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 21-41, October.
- Drummond, Michael & Jonsson, Bengt & Rutten, Frans, 1997. "The role of economic evaluation in the pricing and reimbursement of medicines," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 199-215, June.
- Judith K. Hellerstein, 1998. "The Importance of the Physician in the Generic Versus Trade-Name Prescription Decision," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 108-136, Spring.
- Fiona Scott Morton, 1997. "The Strategic Response by Pharmaceutical Firms to the Medicaid Most-Favored-Customer Rules," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(2), pages 269-290, Summer.
- Mark Johnston & Richard Zeckhauser, 1991. "The Australian Pharmaceutical Subsidy Gambit: Transmuting Deadweight Loss and Oligopoly Rents to Consumer Surplus," NBER Working Papers 3783, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robin Lindsey & Douglas S. West, 1999. "National Pharmacare, Reference-Based Pricing, and Drug R&D: A Critique of the National Forum on Health's Recommendations for Pharmaceutical Policy," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(1), pages 1-27, March.
- F. M. Scherer, 1993. "Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 97-115, Summer.
- Abel-Smith, Brian & Mossialos, Elias, 1994. "Cost containment and health care reform: a study of the European Union," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 89-132, May.
- Schneeweiss, Sebastian & Schoffski, Oliver & Selke, Gisbert W, 1998. "What is Germany's experience on reference based drug pricing and the etiology of adverse health outcomes or substitution?," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 253-260, June.
- Zweifel, Peter & Crivelli, Luca, 1996. "Price Regulation of Drugs: Lessons from Germany," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 257-273, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:hepoli:v:54:y:2000:i:2:p:87-123. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)or ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.