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The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models

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  • Jochen Hinkel

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  • Detlef Vuuren
  • Robert Nicholls
  • Richard Klein

Abstract

This paper studies the effects of mitigation and adaptation on coastal flood impacts. We focus on a scenario that stabilizes concentrations at 450 ppm-CO 2 -eq leading to 42 cm of global mean sea-level rise in 1995–2100 (GMSLR) and an unmitigated one leading to 63 cm of GMSLR. We also consider sensitivity scenarios reflecting increased tropical cyclone activity and a GMSLR of 126 cm. The only adaptation considered is upgrading and maintaining dikes. Under the unmitigated scenario and without adaptation, the number of people flooded reaches 168 million per year in 2100. Mitigation reduces this number by factor 1.4, adaptation by factor 461 and both options together by factor 540. The global annual flood cost (including dike upgrade cost, maintenance cost and residual damage cost) reaches US$ 210 billion per year in 2100 under the unmitigated scenario without adaptation. Mitigation reduces this number by factor 1.3, adaptation by factor 5.2 and both options together by factor 7.8. When assuming adaptation, the global annual flood cost relative to GDP falls throughout the century from about 0.06 % to 0.01–0.03 % under all scenarios including the sensitivity ones. From this perspective, adaptation to coastal flood impacts is meaningful to be widely applied irrespective of the level of mitigation. From the perspective of a some less-wealthy and small island countries, however, annual flood cost can amount to several percent of national GDP and mitigation can lower these costs significantly. We conclude that adaptation and mitigation are complimentary policies in coastal areas. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Jochen Hinkel & Detlef Vuuren & Robert Nicholls & Richard Klein, 2013. "The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 117(4), pages 783-794, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:climat:v:117:y:2013:i:4:p:783-794
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0564-8
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hallegatte, Stephane & Hourcade, Jean-Charles & Dumas, Patrice, 2007. "Why economic dynamics matter in assessing climate change damages: Illustration on extreme events," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 330-340, April.
    2. S Fankhauser, 1995. "Protection versus retreat: the economic costs of sea-level rise," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 27(2), pages 299-319, February.
    3. Richard Tol, 2007. "The double trade-off between adaptation and mitigation for sea level rise: an application of FUND," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 12(5), pages 741-753, June.
    4. S Fankhauser, 1995. "Protection versus Retreat: The Economic Costs of Sea-Level Rise," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 27(2), pages 299-319, February.
    5. Hallegatte, Stéphane & Ghil, Michael, 2008. "Natural disasters impacting a macroeconomic model with endogenous dynamics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1-2), pages 582-592, December.
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    1. repec:oup:renvpo:v:11:y:2017:i:1:p:115-137. is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Chi-Hsiang Wang & Yong Khoo & Xiaoming Wang, 2015. "Adaptation benefits and costs of raising coastal buildings under storm-tide inundation in South East Queensland, Australia," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 132(4), pages 545-558, October.
    3. repec:spr:nathaz:v:92:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11069-018-3244-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Delavane B. Diaz, 2016. "Estimating global damages from sea level rise with the Coastal Impact and Adaptation Model (CIAM)," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 143-156, July.
    5. Oleg Smirnov & Minghua Zhang & Tingyin Xiao & John Orbell & Amy Lobben & Josef Gordon, 2016. "The relative importance of climate change and population growth for exposure to future extreme droughts," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 138(1), pages 41-53, September.
    6. Michael P. Cameron, 2017. "Climate Change, Internal Migration and the Future Spatial Distribution of Population: A Case Study of New Zealand," Working Papers in Economics 17/03, University of Waikato.

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