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The double trade-off between adaptation and mitigation for sea level rise: an application of FUND

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  • Richard Tol

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Abstract

The effects of adaptation and mitigation on the impacts of sea level rise are studied. Without either, the impacts of sea level rise would be substantial, almost wiping out entire nations before 2100; the global effect is much smaller. Adaptation would reduce impacts by a factor 10 to 100. As adaptation depends on socio-economic status, the rank order of most vulnerable countries is not the same as the rank order of most exposed countries. Adaptation would come at a minor cost compared to the damage avoided. Because the momentum of sea level rise is so large, mitigation can reduce impacts only to a limited extent. Stabilising carbon dioxide concentrations at 550 ppm would cut impacts up to 2100 by about 10%. However, if the costs of emission reduction are also factored in, then avoided impacts are less by up to 25% (average 10%). This is partly due to the reduced availability of resources for adaptation, and partly due to the increased sensitivity to wetland loss by adaptation.
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Suggested Citation

  • Richard Tol, 2007. "The double trade-off between adaptation and mitigation for sea level rise: an application of FUND," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 12(5), pages 741-753, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:masfgc:v:12:y:2007:i:5:p:741-753
    DOI: 10.1007/s11027-007-9097-2
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11027-007-9097-2
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    Cited by:

    1. David Anthoff & Robert Nicholls & Richard Tol, 2010. "The economic impact of substantial sea-level rise," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 321-335, April.
    2. Andrea Bigano & Francesco Bosello & Roberto Roson & Richard Tol, 2008. "Economy-wide impacts of climate change: a joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 13(8), pages 765-791, October.
    3. Safarzyńska, Karolina & Brouwer, Roy & Hofkes, Marjan, 2013. "Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 108-118.
    4. Rybicki, Jakub, 2017. "The Influence of Migration on Adaptation and Mitigation - a Political Economy Approach," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168190, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    5. Richard S J Tol, 2018. "The Economic Impacts of Climate Change," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 12(1), pages 4-25.
    6. Habla, Wolfgang & Roeder, Kerstin, 2017. "The political economy of mitigation and adaptation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 239-257.
    7. Anthony Bonen & Prakash Loungani & Willi Semmler & Sebastian Koch, 2016. "Investing to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change; A Framework Model," IMF Working Papers 16/164, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Dipankar Ghorai & H. Sen, 2015. "Role of climate change in increasing occurrences oceanic hazards as a potential threat to coastal ecology," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 75(2), pages 1223-1245, January.
    9. Robert J. Nicholls & Richard S.J. Tol & Athanasios T. Vafeidis, 2005. "Global Estimates Of The Impact Of A Collapse Of The West Antarctic Ice Sheet: An Application Of Fund," Working Papers FNU-78, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Jul 2005.
    10. Strand, Jon, 2014. "Implications of a lowered damage trajectory for mitigation in a continuous-time stochastic model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 43-49.
    11. Jochen Hinkel & Detlef Vuuren & Robert Nicholls & Richard Klein, 2013. "The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 117(4), pages 783-794, April.
    12. Heuson, Clemens & Gawel, Erik & Gebhardt, Oliver & Hansjürgens, Bernd & Lehmann, Paul & Meyer, Volker & Schwarze, Reimund, 2012. "Fundamental questions on the economics of climate adaptation: Outlines of a new research programme," UFZ Reports 05/2012, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ).
    13. Bosello, Francesco & De Cian, Enrica, 2014. "Climate change, sea level rise, and coastal disasters. A review of modeling practices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 593-605.
    14. Heuson, Clemens & Gawel, Erik & Gebhardt, Oliver & Hansjürgens, Bernd & Lehmann, Paul & Meyer, Volker & Schwarze, Reimund, 2012. "Ökonomische Grundfragen der Klimaanpassung: Umrisse eines neuen Forschungsprogramms," UFZ Reports 02/2012, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ).
    15. Miao, Qing & Popp, David, 2014. "Necessity as the mother of invention: Innovative responses to natural disasters," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 280-295.
    16. Dannenberg, Astrid & Mennel, Tim & Osberghaus, Daniel & Sturm, Bodo, 2009. "The economics of adaptation to climate change: the case of Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-057, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    17. Santosh R. Joshi & Marc Vielle & Frédéric Babonneau & Neil R. Edwards & Philip B. Holden, 2016. "Physical and Economic Consequences of Sea-Level Rise: A Coupled GIS and CGE Analysis Under Uncertainties," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 65(4), pages 813-839, December.
    18. Richard S.J. Tol, 2016. "Dangerous Interference With The Climate System: An Economic Assessment," Working Paper Series 10016, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    19. repec:eee:ecolec:v:138:y:2017:i:c:p:186-198 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Adaptation; Mitigation; Sea level rise;

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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