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The Geographic Distribution of U.S. Unemployment by Gender


  • Edmund J. Zolnik

    (George Mason University, Arlington, VA, USA,


A study of the geographic distribution of U.S. unemployment takes up the challenge to explore regional variation in unemployment by gender. To do so, the differential effects of local and regional unemployment on the likelihood that individual women and men are unemployed and differences in the underlying patterns of unemployment by gender are explored. Using a unique tabulation of micro data for labor market areas, two series of multilevel models for women and men are fit. The multilevel model results suggest that regional variation in unemployment is more evident for men than for women and, contrary to the empirical evidence, the underlying pattern of unemployment for men is more clustered than for women. The article concludes by discussing the policy implications of the finding that most of the variation in labor market outcomes for both women and men is attributable to individual-level rather than labor market area-level characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • Edmund J. Zolnik, 2011. "The Geographic Distribution of U.S. Unemployment by Gender," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 25(1), pages 91-103, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:ecdequ:v:25:y:2011:i:1:p:91-103

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Corey Sparks & Joey Campbell, 2014. "An Application of Bayesian Methods to Small Area Poverty Rate Estimates," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 33(3), pages 455-477, June.


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