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Ajustement sur les marchés du travail et lutte contre le chômage [En Allemagne, en France et aux États-Unis]

Author

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  • Catherine Bruno
  • Catherine Fuss

Abstract

[fre] Au cours des vingt-cinq dernières années, l'Europe et les États-Unis ont connu des expériences différentes en termes de chômage. Un moyen de savoir si le taux de chômage est dû à des dysfonctionnements spécifiques au marché du travail ou le résultat du policy mix est d'analyser la réponse du taux de chômage à des chocs survenus sur le marché du travail. Dans le cas où le taux de chômage ne répond pas de façon significative à ces chocs — c'est le cas des États-Unis —, on peut convenir du fait qu'il n'est pas un problème spécifique au marché du travail mais le résultat du policy mix. En revanche, si le taux de chômage répond significativement aux chocs du marché du travail alors il peut être combattu par des réformes structurelles entreprises sur le marché du travail. Dans ce texte, nous évaluons à partir d'une approche globale, dynamique et sans a priori théorique, les modes d'ajustement de l'emploi, du taux de chômage, du taux de participation et du salaire réel aux chocs du marché du travail — chocs de demande et d'offre de travail — en France, en Allemagne et aux États-Unis au cours des trente dernières années. Notre objectif est de montrer que la lutte contre le chômage en Europe ne peut être efficace que par la mise en œuvre d'une politique macroéconomique cohérente à l'échelle communautaire. Cela signifie alors que l'emploi est un objectif à atteindre en Europe au même titre que la stabilité des prix. [eng] Adjustments on French, German and American labour markets : what do you learn about unemployment in Europe ?. Catherine Bruno and Catherine Fuss. During the last twenty five years, unemployment in Europe had a positive trend independently of the business cycle, although in the United States it fluctuated with it. In this paper, we are interested in the nature of unemployment. More precisely, we ask if unemployment is either the resuit of policy mix or due to specifie labour market disfunctioning. To answer this question, we evaluate adjustments of employment, unemployment rate, participation rate and real wage to labour demand and labour supply shocks in vectorial autoregressive model. We conclude that unemployment in the United States is the resuit of policy mix, although in France and Germany, it is the resuit of specifie labour market disfunctioning. In other words, unemployment will decrease in Europe if employment becomes a goal to reach as price stability is nowadays.. JEL codes : E 24, F 22, J 31.

Suggested Citation

  • Catherine Bruno & Catherine Fuss, 2000. "Ajustement sur les marchés du travail et lutte contre le chômage [En Allemagne, en France et aux États-Unis]," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 74(1), pages 159-179.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_2000_num_74_1_1609
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.2000.1609
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Quah, Danny, 1989. "The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 655-673, September.
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    3. Decressin, Jorg & Fatas, Antonio, 1995. "Regional labor market dynamics in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1627-1655, December.
    4. Forni, Mario & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 1997. "National Policies and Local Economies: Europe and the United States," CEPR Discussion Papers 1632, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Tamim Bayoumi & Barry Eichengreen, 1992. "Shocking Aspects of European Monetary Unification," NBER Working Papers 3949, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew Oswald, 1995. "International Wage Curves," NBER Chapters,in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 145-174 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 1995. "An Introduction to the Wage Curve," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 153-167, Summer.
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