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Allégements des charges sur les bas salaires

Listed author(s):
  • Jean-Paul Fitoussi

[fre] On s'aperçoit, en passant en revue différents modèles théoriques, que les économistes de tout bord sont d'accord pour reconnaître l'utilité des aides à l'embauche. Dans un pays où les rémunérations les plus basses sont néanmoins relativement élevées, les aides à l'embauche ont pour effet d'abaisser le coût de la main-d 'œuvre pour les entreprises. Dans les pays où les rémunérations les plus basses sont faibles, les aides à l'embauche peuvent élever le salaire net réel des travailleurs. Dans les deux cas, on peut en attendre un effet positif sur l'emploi. En général, en permettant au système de prix de jouer son rôle sur le plan de la répartition, tout en poursuivant des objectifs de redistribution avec le système fiscal, on élève le niveau de bien-être. C'est pourquoi on peut s'étonner que ce type de mesure n 'ait pas été mis en œuvre à grande échelle dans tous les pays confrontés à des problèmes d'emploi. Sans doute faut-il en chercher la raison notamment dans un problème de transition : il y a un moment où les contribuables doivent financer à la fois l'ancien système (l'indemnisation du chômage) et le nouveau système (les aides à l'embauche), avant que celui-ci ait un effet notable sur le chômage. Les données empiriques tendent à montrer que la réduction des charges sociales ne permet pas de résoudre le problème d'emploi ni le problème de la répartition mais permet d'espérer des progrès, à long terme, sur ces deux plans. [eng] Payroll tax reductions for the low paid Jean-Paul Fitoussi A review of different theoretical models confirms that economists of opposing beliefs find themselves agreeing about the usefulness of employment subsidies. In a country with a relatively high wage floor, they reduce the cost of labour for firms. In countries where wage floors are low, subsidies can increase the net real wage of workers. In both cases, employment is likely to rise. Generally, allowing the price system to perform its allocative function while pursuing distributive objectives through the tax system is welfare enhancing. It is therefore surprising that such a remedy has not yet been implemented on a large scale in ail countries suffering from labour market problems. One reason is that there may be a problem of transition. Empirical evidence suggests that reductions in taxes on labour will not solve employment and distribution problems, but will, in the long run, promise progress in both. JEL codes : H20, J30, J38.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 74 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 33-51

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_2000_num_74_1_1604
Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.2000.1604
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  1. Dehez, Pierre & Fitoussi, Jean-Paul, 1996. "On Minimum Income, Qualification Structure and Salary Scale," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 1996009, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  2. Steven J. Davis & Magnus Henrekson, 1997. "Industrial Policy, Employer Size, and Economic Performance in Sweden," NBER Chapters,in: The Welfare State in Transition: Reforming the Swedish Model, pages 353-398 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Fitoussi, Jean-Paul, 1994. "Wage Distribution and Unemployment: The French Experience," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 59-64, May.
  4. Pierre Dehez & Jean-Paul Fitoussi, 1996. "Revenu minimum, allocations-chômage et subventions à l'emploi," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 47(1), pages 33-49.
  5. Pissarides, Christopher A., 1998. "The impact of employment tax cuts on unemployment and wages; The role of unemployment benefits and tax structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 155-183, January.
  6. Fleurbaey, M., 1998. "Employment Subsidies, Unemployment and Monopolistic Competition," Papers 9824, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
  7. Phelps, Edmund S, 1994. "Low-Wage Employment Subsidies versus the Welfare State," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 54-58, May.
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